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Austria, though a leading German state in 1815, disliked the idea of a united Germany since it would put her in a very embarrassing position. Although the Habsburg was of German origin, Austria was reluctant to become part of a united Germany because it would oblige her to give up her vast non-German population and territories in the Austrian Empire. What is more, she even opposed the idea of a united Germany since it would create a strong neighbor next to her. This was by no means desirable for Austria politically or strategically. Besides, the success of German Unification might lead to the disintegration of the Austrian Empire since it would stimulate the independence movements among
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Charlemagne as the Roman Emperor.
Charlemagne also had some important cultural achievements. He promoted and reformed education after it had dissipated in the preceding Dark Ages. He invited English, German, Italian and Spanish scholars to teach in his empire. Charlemagne also ordered that all clergy and monks in monasteries be educated. In addition to educational reforms, Charlemagne helped revive the arts, architecture and literature. Lastly, Charlemagne reformed the government by giving less authority to the nobles. He and his royal agents, called missi dominici, traveled throughout the empire to make sure that counts, or powerful landholders governed their territories and treated people fairly. The reign of Charlemagne, through his military and political success, brought order and prosperity to much of Western Europe.
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Otto von Bismarck or Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince von Bismarck,
Count von Bismarck-Schnhausen, Duke von Lauenburg--was a Prussian
statesman who in 1871 founded the German Empire and served as its
first chancellor for 19 years. Once the empire was established, he
actively and skillfully pursued pacific policies in foreign affairs,
succeeding in preserving the peace in Europe for about two decades.
But in domestic policies his patrimony was less benign, for he failed
to rise above the authoritarian proclivities of the landed squirearchy
to which he was born (Britannica, 1997).
Until his resignation in 1890, Bismarck had a relatively free
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rescue of the Christians leaving the Ottomans feeling as if they were disregarded (Goldschmidt Jr., and Davidson 157).
The Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the German side in 1914 mainly to recover lost lands from the British (Goldschmidt Jr., and Davidson 203). A railway was being built by the Germans from Istanbul to Baghdad which would keep the Ottoman Empire running (Goldschmidt Jr., and Davidson 203). The British contacted the Sharif Husayn or descendant of Mohammad in Hijaz in an effort to oppose the Ottoman Empire’s efforts in the war (Goldschmidt Jr., and Davidson 204). The British hoped to use the Sharif to hold a jihad against the Ottoman Empire (Goldschmidt Jr., and
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rejected the offer and rallied his people to fight on.The Third Reich experienced its first military defeat in the Battle of Britain, in which the Royal Air Force, during the summer and fall of 1940, prevented the German air force from gaining the air superiority necessary for an invasion of Britain. Consequently, Hitler postponed the invasion.Hitler concluded by June 1941 that Britain's continuing resistance was not a serious impediment to his main geopolitical goal of creating an empire extending east from Germany deep into the Soviet Union. On June 22, 1941, negating their 1939 nonaggression pact, Germany invaded the Soviet Union. Eagerness to realize his long-held dream caused Hitler to
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How important was the strength of Austria as an obstacle for German unification between 1815-1850?
The importance of the strength of the state of Austria as an obstacle for German unification is something that is widely debated amongst historians and with the fact that the Emperor of Austria used to rule over the German states as part of the Holy Roman Empire gave Austria a degree of influence over the states by 1850. However, there were other factors that had some effect in repressing the nationalist feeling from spreading across Germany at this time and the first of which is the divisions among the German nationalists and the debate concerning the territory that should be included in a
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interference of a government dominated by the military. The presence of minorities within the empire and growing anti-Semitism in Europe encourages racist views, and the growing political importance of the SPD stimulated fears of socialist threats to the nation. Above all, during this period, German nationalism became rooted in chauvinist masculine sentiments.
By 1890, Germans felt their allegiance to a normal state at least as strongly as the citizens of France and other European countries. Germany had not only built up all of the required symbols of national identity such as a common currency, flag and anthem, it relied heavily on well integrated national machinery, including the post office
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strong ethnic and national identity. The Holy Roman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian
Empire have been apart of Germany. Germany in its early history resisted being taken
over by the Roman Empire. In 1871, a separate German Empire was created but not until
Bismarck. The German state remained even after losing in World War I. Germany
became two separate entities after World War II including the representation of the
opposite hegemonies which was directed by the United States and the Soviet Union.
(Germany then and now, 1994)
Germany started out as tribes but now has the third largest economy in the world
and the largest in Europe. The country went
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much control over individual states.
After the parliament had finally agreed on a constitution in 1849, the German Empire needed a ruler! They offered the crown to Fredrick William IV, who refused to receive the crown “from the gutter”. He distrusted the parliament and did not think they were in the right to offer him such a thing without any legal authority. Also, he was aware of the fact that as King of Prussia, accepting the German crown would put him under the control of the Frankfurt Parliament. In the worst case, it even meant war with Austria.
Although Frederick William was part of the reason why the Frankfurt Parliament was established and he was committed to German unification
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Hitler’s demands to avoid another conflict allowed Hitler
to keep demanding for more land to expand the German empire. He gained
much for Germany, an example of his never ending demands was the
invasion of the whole of Czechoslovakia, in March 1939, after he had
been appeased and had been given the Sudetenland. Clearly, Hitler’s
demands could never be satisfied and he was finally stood up to by
Britain and France in September 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland. The
policy of appeasement, which Neville Chamberlain had supported,
actually encouraged Hitler to take more and more as he realised he
wouldn’t be opposed. This led to the outbreak of the Second World
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Hyperinflation and the Treaty of Versailles
The treaty of Versailles was one of the five treaties that dealt with
the defeated powers as well as being the most famous of the five and
also became notorious for overall effects on Germany.
Germany signed the treaty reluctantly and under mass protest due to
the terms and conditions the treaty enforced on Germany and the effect
it would eventually have on Germanys Empire and economy.
The main terms were firstly the surrender of all German colonies as
League of Nations mandates; the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France;
demilitarisation and a fifteen-year occupation of the Rhineland. The
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-German relations were formally established in 1861, when Prussia and the Qing Empire concluded the first Sino-German treaty during the Eulenburg Expedition. Ten years later, the German Empire was founded and the new state inherited the old Prussian treaty. The relations were on the whole, frosty, with Germany joining imperialist powers like Great Britain and France in carving out spheres of influence in the Chinese empire.
The Germans also participated in the crushing of the Boxer Rebellion. After World War I, relations gradually improved, though this would gradually change during the 1930s as Adolf Hitler allied himself with Japan. During the aftermath of World War II Germany was split
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B The Reich’s Constitution
The influence of Prussia
* German Empire created in 1871..
* Empire was a federal state which consisted of the 4 kingdoms (Prussia, Bavaria, Wurtemberg and Saxony).
The Reichstag (Imperial Assembly)
* Bismarck was voted chancellor
* Had theoretical control over any changes to the military budget
* He sacrificed this weapon by agreeing in 1874 because he did not want any constitutional conflict.
* Bismarck left it and did not want anything to do with it anymore.
The Bundesrat and the Emperor
* Bundesrat had the power to initiate legislation, with the approval of the Emperor it had the authority to declare war and
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in 1914 ’the Russians nor any of the other Powers believed it in their best interest to see what was left of the Turkish Empire being partitioned between them.’
Yet once war broke out Russia still would have liked to secure the Turkish straits and increase their Polish territory at the expense of Germany and Austria-Hungary. This may not have been a plausible reason for Russia at the time to mobilise her army but it was a definite part of Russia’s war aims.
The Serbian Crisis however, was more fundamental in the assessment of the outbreak of war. Serbia, to which Russia felt she owed responsibility to defend the Pan’ Slav Movement and the German ‘blank cheque’ offered
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, and Italy had terminated. Wilhelm II also tried contesting Britain’s navy, by building a very strong German navy. This cost Wilhelm a lot of money, which ultimately reduced the amount of spending they could put into their army, and did not allow them to keep up with modern military technology, making them more vulnerable. As Kaiser Wilhelm II continues being emperor, he gets very greedy, as Germany tries to make a United States of Europe by moving “east to an empire that would include the Baltic states, the Ukraine, Poland, and southern Russia.” All of these countries got very tired of Germany trying to expand their empire so much, and it was a major contribution to the start of WWI. This is one of the reasons why the allied forces were so harsh during the Treaty of Versailles, to make sure Germany didn’t get greedy again, and try taking over more land. The Treaty of Versailles not only failed to accomplish that purpose, but it did exactly the opposite. (The Map of Europe).
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Serbians feared that after he was at the throne, he would continue the persecution of Serbs living within the Austria-Hungary Empire. The Serbian terrorist organization, the Black Hand, had to carry out the assassination.The Arms Race is the second cause. Britain at that time was the largest empire in the world, and it also had the largest navy. The navy was so big and strong because the British needed to protect their empire and maintain the sea routes between the different colonies. Kaiser William of Germany hated and envied Britain for having a stronger navy than his. He increased the German navy and built many warships. Britain responded with building more ships and increasing its navy
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premier status and superpower of European countries and of her domestic situation within the empire, which was wide spreading mentality among the people believing "the creation of an overseas fleet and a German colonial empire a new mission for Germany which would give a new purpose to the German state and German society" (James Joll, 1990). His argument is based around that the acquisition of colonies in the late nineteenth century gave German people sense of superiority and of being a world power, and it was these senses that kept the idea of constructing strong navy in their minds almost obsessively. He also points out the existence of powerful economic pressure groups that had benefited from
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You should focus your study on the essential questions for chapters 19-23.
19- Why did the Great War last so long and bring about so much change? – look at how fighting was different from all other wars- how did it affect German citizens on the home front- What was the post war peace settlement and how would you feel about it as a German citizen?- What do you think will be the lasting effects of the Great War?
20- What changes did the Russian revolution bring about within Russia and in world affairs?- focus on the events and the effects of the events- review the Revolution of 1905, February Revolution, October Revolution, Red Terror, new Economic Policy
21. What were the causes
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By 1871, Europe was remapped with the rise of two newly united nations - the Kingdom of Italy and the German Empire. The unification movements of both countries took place at roughly the same time in the mid-19th century and were motivated by the same historical trends - liberalism and nationalism.
Germany and Italy had to face many problems in order to establish their respective unification. One of Prussia's main concern was the fear of nearby nations such as Austria and France. These nations believed a strong united nation would affect their power of influence.
As for Italy, the main concern was the Vienna peacemakers who wished for a divided Italy under the control of Austria
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were what spurred many issues regarding international relations. Individuals—men-on-the-spot—such as George Goldie and Cecil Rhodes played a large part in British expansionism within Africa using ‘creeping imperialism’ to gain a foothold in those regions. The matters that arose as a response of these men-on-the-spot was what caused the government to intervene and form a formal empire within different regions of Africa. For example, William McKinnon and his rivalry with the German Karl Peters resulted in the British government funding the British East Africa Company, and then influence spreading almost all the way across the East of Africa into countries like Uganda, Kenya, and Somaliland
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diminishing Ottoman influence and the rise of Nationalism in the Balkans allowed for cracks to develop domestically within the Empire that external powers like Britain and France could not prevent. The Balkans comprised of different ethnic races of multifarious faiths that had been continually suppressed by the Sultans. These culturally diverse factions wished to be free of the imperial yoke and instead self-determinate by establishing their own rule. The idea of Nationalism had its roots in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, which established the principles of sovereignty.7 Subsequent events such as the 1848 Revolutions in Europe and the later the birth of the German and Italian nations in the
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leading to the ultimate goal of transforming itself into a “political, separatist movement that would free the Slavic lands under Germanic rule” (Weninger, 2009).
Tensions were high amongst the Great Powers (Germany, France, Italy, Britain, Russia, and the Austria-Hungarian Empire), due to diplomatic skirmishes during the past decade, all leading to the events of 1914. Tension over who was going to control territory in the Balkans became a central influence preceding war, as Serbia and Russia competed with Austria-Hungary, resulting in the other Great Powers becoming involved.
In the late 1870s and early 1880s, German nationalists came to believe their nation was the
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How Christianity affected the empire
* Think in term of centuries
Germans, army, borders
* German influence lead to the end of the empire
* Battle of Adrianople Germans beat romans
* Start taking parts of Rome
* Bad emperors in west
* Bad economy lets Germans in
The splitting of the empire
* Why do they split
* Why does the west fall
* How are they different in culture, language
* West has bad emperors
* East pays people no to invade
Emergence of absolute autocracy
* Power of the emperor
Who is the most important person in second triumvirate
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the fact that the U.S. Senate did not ratify the multilateral peace treaty signed in Versailles (Keegan, 1998). Terms were exchanged in Berlin on November 11, 1921, and the treaty became effective on the same day. The treaty laid the foundations for a U.S.-German cooperation not under the strict supervision of the League of Nations. Following the conclusion of the peace treaty, diplomatic relations between the two governments were reestablished (Keegan, 1998).
The Great War drew in all the world's economic great powers, who assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom/British Empire, France and the Russian Empire) versus the Central
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The purpose of this essay is to investigate and explain how the Treaty of Versailles affected the German economy. I find this subject relevant since it is a big event in European history.
During the years after the First World War Germany had a lot of debts and faced a lot of reparation costs. Even though the meaning of most of the peace treaties was to encourage the world economy, re-build cities and maintain peace, not a lot of these goals were fulfilled.
The First World War was a military conflict that included a lot of countries around the world. The war started at June 28, 1914 and lasted until November 11, 1918. The war was played out between the great
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start of by exterminating the Polish race, just as how the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish government tried to annihilate the Armenian race. Hitler was quoted saying he told a German newspaper editor that in deciding the future of Germany, one should "[t]hink of the biblical deportations and the massacres of the Middle Ages (Rosenberg refers to them) and remember the extermination of the Armenians” (Hannibal). The article clearly shows how Hitler used the tactics of the Armenian genocide as a way to wipe out the Polish race as he was on his way to blame someone for the WW1 repercussions. In seeing how the Armenian race was nearly annihilated, Hitler saw it as an opportunity to do the same to
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Road to War 1905-1914
• Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina October 5, 1908 (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Serbia, Montenegro, German Empire and France intervened in these events), this damage the relationship of Austria-Hungary to Serbia.
• all faced with Turkey, the second faced the victors, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro, against Bulgaria
• Germany supported the Austro-Hungarian empire in case of conflict. Russia supported Austria-Hungary in case Germany would attack Serbia. France would support Russia for its connections.
The final crisis: the death of Archduke June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo (Bosnia), heir to the Austro
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. But the French demanded further commitments. Bismarck
insured the states of Germany rallied to the Prussian cause and in
Jan, 1871, William I of Prussia was proclaimed German emperor. To
maintain the peace necessary for the consolidation of the German
empire, Bismarck proposed:
· To advance a strong military program.
· To remain within Germany's boundaries.
· To preserve British friendship by avoiding naval or colonial
· To isolate France in diplomacy so that revenge would be impossible.
The Bismarck era closed with the death of Kaiser Wilhelm. A struggle
between Bismarck and Wilhelm II developed upon the emperor's
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political system, as well as the departure from Sonderweg, meaning Germany no longer followed a unique path of development and that nationalism and militarism were on the decline. The significance of the previous German eras, Kaiser Reich (Semi-Autocratic Empire), Weimar Republic (Federal Democracy) and the Third Reich (Dictatorship) are also significant, however in political terms they are not as significant as post 45.
The significances of post 1945 can be seen by its success of creating a working democracy in Germany after 1945, the FRG. One reason why the FRG was successful revolves around the sudden decline in German militarism and nationalism. This is evident in the fact that the FRG’s
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Neo-Nazism refers to any social or political movement to revive Nazism, which was a movement that reflected the beliefs of Adolf Hitler. Hitler was the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party’s and of Nazi Germany from 1933 – 1945 serving as the Head of State, Chancellor of Germany, Head of Government and ruling as dictator. Although Hitler was raised in Austrian Catholic culture publicists Lanz von Liebenfels and politicians such as Karl Lueger and Georg Ritter von Schonerer influenced him, which formed his belief in the superiority of the “Aryan race”.
Hitler developed his political theories from the Austria-Hungary Empire, which is known as
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- Hungarian throne. Austria-Hungary retaliated by threatening Serbia to give up Princip, or else they would have to interfere by force. Serbia however, did not know who the assassin was, and could do nothing. As an ally of Serbia, Russia warned Austro-Hungary not to invade, which in turn provoked the German Empire (who had a treaty with Austria-Hungary) into threatening Russia. Britain and France (allies of Russia) then tried to warn off Germany. Japan also aided Britain under the 1905 Anglo-Japanese treaty. So, the main alliances were: 'The triple Entente' consisting of France, Britain, Russia, and later to be joined Italy and the US, and the 'Central Powers' which were made up of Germany, Austria
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German. The German war effort on the home front was also collapsing. German public was suffering from War weariness and malnutrition brought on by the Allied blockade. German government also underwent political revolution. The German empire transferred its power to the new War weary civilian government. The German government finally agreed on United States’ conditions for the Armistice. This outcome can be best described by Clausewitz’ paradoxical trinity. Clausewitz’s paradoxical trinity were an interactive set of three forces that drives the war: the people, the military and the government. (book I, chapter 1,p. 89) World War I ended when German people, government and military lost their
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June of 1919 placed almost impossible expectations on Germany and provided the greatest piece of propaganda against the Republic. Economically the TOV required Germany to pay $40 billion in reparations as well as donate machinery and recourses to allied powers, an impossible task given Germany’s economic position at the time. It also took land and colonies from the German empire in addition to sole responsibility being placed on Germany for starting the war. William Carr infers that the people of Germany saw the TOV as a way of weakening and humiliating Germany. For this reason it can be said that the TOV was indeed paramount in the Republic’s collapse. It is also possible to trace the
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Around 500 AD, the slavic people lived near the Ukraine. Then, they began to move east into modern day Russia and south towards the Byzantine Empire
Around 800 AD, the vikings began to attack (the slavs)
862 AD, the slavs asked a viking, Rurik ‘ the Rus’ to rule over them in Novgorod
Because of viking raids, Europe militarizes itself but they’re still not united
Russian Orthodox Christianity
863 AD, Cyrill and Methodius (brothers), were sent as missionaries by the Christian Church in the Byzantine Empire and they developed an alphabet based on the Greek, that was capable of representing Slavic sounds so they could translate the Bible (The Cyrillic Alphabet)
East of Rome
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France as French sphere of influence. Italy also wanted Italia Irredenta--Trieste, Trentio and Tyrol. Although the majority of the people in these places were Italians, they were kept under the rule of the Dual Monarchy. Thus Italy came into serious conflicts with Austria-Hungary.
Austria-Hungary was established as the Dual Monarchy in 1867. The Dual Monarchy ruled over a large empire consisting of many nationalities, including Italian, but only the Austrians (actually German) and the Hungarians had the right to rule. The other nationalities Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, Rumanians and Poles resented their loss of political freedom. They desired for political independence. Therefore the policy
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2. Restoring lost pride, franco-prussian war. New market, investment.
1. missed opportunity to take control of land overseas
2. OTTO VON BISMARCK – GERMAN CHANCELLOR UNTIL 1890. COMPETING WITH BRITIAN, GIVE POWER TO PRESSURE BRITIAN GIVING INTO SOME OF GERMANY’S FOREIGN POLICIES.
1. Est. expansion of Europe. Borders 2 countries, 50 million ppl.
1. Acquired empire through expansion of Europe, 1/6 earth's surface.
2. An economic, strategic power, territory in Iran, blackens.
3. Balkans = Mediterranean sea, 4 diverse raw materials
4. Persia= rich oil.
* UNITED STATES= fix problems 1890
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areas of Germany. Even the events, such as the Kulturkampf, that seemed as if they would stop unification brought the German people together and improved relations with other countries and authorities. Apart from some aspects of unification which were not achieved, for example the Germanisation of Alsace-Lorraine, the overall goal seemed to be achieved in unifying and strengthening Germany. Bismarck himself obviously thought he had achieved full unification of Germany as he said, ‘In 1871, I had an empire, but by 1879, I had a nation.’
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4) Who were your leader’s allies? Who were your leader’s enemies/opponents? Is your leader still controversial today?
-Otto Von Bismarck’s allies were Austria-Hungary and Italy. Bismarck’s enemies were France and the Austrian Empire. My leader is not controversial today. Instead, he is characterized as a hero because of his important contributions to Germany and his accomplishments. He is responsible for the Austro-Prussian War, and the Franco-Prussian War.
5) What happened to your leader? Was he/she successful in achieving his/her vision? Why or why not?
-Otto Von Bismarck was successful in achieving his vision, being primarily responsible for German Unification. His
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German after the amendments made to the Treaty of San Stefano which see Russia compensate Austria-Hungary with some of its territorial gains in the Balkans. After 1871 Bismarck tried to portray Germany as a peace maker and preserver of the European status quo, he continued this throughout his chancellorship, all the time while trying to expand the German Empire. Bismarck was the organiser of the Congress of Berlin and tried to play the role of ‘’honest broker’’, however the outcomes of the congress did nothing for Russo-German relations and soon after the Dreikaiserbung was discontinued, now asserting Russia as a potential enemy rather than ally. The Dual Alliance over the next three years
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from the rest of Europe by the English Channel.
➢ Had been made wealthy in the 19th century by its factories.
➢ Ruled by a constitutional Monarch
➢ Controlled the world’s largest empire.
➢ One of the largest countries in Europe.
➢ Was party industrialized, party agriculture.
➢ France was a republic with a parliament and a large empire.
➢ Located in central Europe.
➢ Ruled by an emperor who had more power in his country than any other monarch in Europe.
➢ The empire contained many ethnic groups; Germans, Slavs, and Magyars.
➢ Many of these ethnics were making claims for their own country.
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Prior to October 1918, Kaiser Wilhelm II was the Emperor of Germany which gave him great power. He controlled foreign policy and the armed forces as well as being able to summon and dismiss members of the Reichstag. Consequently, Kaiser Wilhelm II had the greatest influence over every aspect of Germany life.
The Second Reich was a German Empire formed by Bismark in 1871. This empire was created after Austria was expelled from the German confederation and the North German confederation was set up. The final factor that caused this formation was the defeat of France by Prussia bringing all the South German states into a united Germany. The Second Reich was thus a product of great military success
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Maria Theresa is a bad leader because, she was not recognized a monarch by France and allowed the province of Silesia to be captured by France and then failed to recapture Silesia.
* Had 16 kids
* Refused to allow religious toleration
* Imposed financial and educational reforms
Frederick II was a good leader because, he was dedicated military tactician and was nicknamed Frederick the great.
* Tried to defect to Britain at a young age
* Conquered polish territories
* German historians made Frederick into a romantic model of a glorified warrior
Louis XIV was a good leader, he eliminated the remnants of feudalism and pacified the aristocracy.
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broke out on August 3rd 1914; consequently, the Russian were in charge of defending the Eastern Front from 1914 up to 1917 and they were one of the reason why the Schlieffen Plan failed. However, Tsar Nicholas II did not realise that his empire was not prepared to afford the cost of a war since, at that time, most people in Russia lived as peasants and the industrial revolution had not arrive to the country which still seemed a Medieval Feud and not a modern European country.
The March Revolution on March 8th 1917 was the beginning of the end of the Russian Empire and the first step that led Russia to leave the war. As a matter of fact, this situation was a disaster for the Allies but a
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World War I The First World War is also known as the Great War that ended all wars. The First War World began on August 4, 1914, when German troops poured into Belgium. When American first have knowledge of the military tension in Europe, they wanted to stay out of the war and declared neutrality. Many believed that the First World War is caused by nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and the system of alliances. As national interests and national unity grew in Europe and the development of the armed force, jealousies, and fears led nations in Europe to sign treaties of alliances to support each other in case a country is attackedby another. By 1914, there were two major mutual-defense
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. However, as the British Empire continued to expand, its domestic industrial infrastructure was almost altogether abandoned, causing its inevitable technological obsolescence by the last quarter of the century. The relative decline of British industry and global dominance began in the 1870s along with a shift in gross national investment from domestic markets to overseas, requiring British foreign policy to ensure the naval, military, and financial security of its empire through defensive build-up and diplomacy at the turn of the 20th Century; in response to Britain’s relatively weaker position, German policy became more aggressive in an effort to assert Germany’s new global power status and
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first began in Asia in 1937 as the Second Sino-Japanese War; the other began in Europe in 1939 with the German invasion of Poland
World War I was fought by two major alliances. The Entente Powers initially consisted of France, England, Russia, and their associated empires. Numerous other states joined these allies, most notably Italy in April 1915, and the United States in April 1917. The Central Powers, named because of their central location on the European continent, initially consisted of Germany and Austria-Hungary and their associated empires. The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in October 1914, followed a year later by Bulgaria. By the conclusion of the war; only The
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Napolean Nationalism is the devotion of people to the interests of its nation or the love of one's country to stay independent. Nationalism played a major role in the downfall of Napoleon in that he wanted an empire and his opponent's wanted independence. As Napoleon was conquering lands and creating a vast empire his troops stressed in the far lands that they conquered life, liberty and equality. Even though Napoleon did not realize it triggered nationalistic feelings among the conquered nations. Spain who was an ally of France, disobeyed Napoleon's decree. Then in 1808 Napoleon overthrew the Spanish royal family and made his brother Joseph king of Spain. But everything that Napoleon did
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pressure for Jews to assimilate into the traditions of where they settled as results of diasporas.
* Francisco Franco:
Franco Rebel leader of spanish civil war. Spanish general and dictator ruled spain for 36yrs 1939-1975 organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.
* Franz Ferdinand:
He was the heir of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. He was assassinated by a serbian named princip Sarajevo in 1914. This event sparked a series of actions that led to the beginning of WWI.
* German Unification: (1848-1871)
The next attempt at German
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, conquering a huge area corresponding to modern France and Belgium. Caesar also crossed the English Channel to punish the Celtic Britons for helping their fellow Celts in Gaul, though he made no effort to conquer Britain permanently. While Caesar was fighting in Gaul, the German tribes from east of the Rhine often crossed the river and made trouble. Caesar massacred two entire tribes of them, building a bridge across the Rhine for a quick punitive raid into the territory on the east bank and destroying his bridge after his return. He temporarily taught the Germans the lesson that they should stay on their own side of the river. (Winks) On the Gallic side, his victories meant the spread of Roman
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for the Christian life in the Tagalog language (Godinez-Ortega n.d.). A French example is the handwritten Chanson de Roland piece which talks about the remarkable experiences of Charlemagne (Tillotson, 2005).
The spread of vernacular language was, vast and was the result of the second death of the Latin language and is still much alive today with 6 languages (Journal of Empire Studies, 2012). The language dialect of those without an education was also the result of vernacular language (The University of Calgary, 1996). Some of the dialect spoken in Western Europe was Greek, Celtic, Romanic, which were different languages derived from and adopted by the invading German nations and German