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November 20 2009During the Han Dynasty, China officially became a Confucian state and did really good through agriculture, handicrafts and commerce. "The population reached 50 million and the empire expanded its political and cultural influence over Vietnam, Central Asia, Mongolia, and Korea before it finally collapsed from a lethal mixture of domestic and external pressures."(Han) "The first of the two periods of the dynasty, namely the Former Han Dynasty or the Western Han Dynasty 206 BC - AD 9 seated at Chang'an and the Later Han Dynasty or the Eastern Han Dynasty 25 - 220 seated at Luoyang."(Han) The western-eastern Han convention is used nowadays to avoid confusion with the Later Han
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Dynasties or empires have a natural life span just like humans and usually only last three generations. There are many reasons as to the decline; bureaucratic corruption, inequitable economic burdens, costly technology, moral decline or even external enemies to name a few (Upshur, Terry, Holoka, Goff, & Cassar, 2002, p. 171). Whatsoever the reason, what an empire leaves behind can be contributed to the spread of ideas and practices across many continents (lecture notes, 2009).
Lifecycle of an Empire
The Han Dynasty is one such declining empire. It was ruled by the family known as the Liu clan who had peasant origins. The reign started in 206 B.C.E. and lasted 400 years until
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and Roman empires saw themselves superior to anyone. They both thought this because they had it all and they had powerful armies. According to History of the Early Han Dynasty it says that Tu Shih destroyed evil-doers and established the dignity of his office, it also says that he loved common people and wished to save their labor. The Han had a great government and they had it all so that’s why the saw themselves superior to everyone else. The Romans saw themselves as superior because they had all these great inventions and they had a very strong army and they had a lot of pride and it is shown in a document written by Frontinus who said, “Compare such numerous and indispensable structures
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broken the power of the Zhou court gradually diminished (www.paulnoll.com/China/Dynasty-Zhou.html).
The Qin dynasty was a ruthless one. They relied heavily on standardizing legal codes and bureaucratic procedures (www.paulnoll.com/China/Dynasty-Qin.html). Wow! One could say that China is communist due to this dynasty. What is it with the mentality all or nothing?
IIan was the dynasty that followed Qin; Not only in sequential order, but also characteristically. Han leaders were even more corrupt than the previous Qin dynasty. Man, I am beginning to wonder if the poor Chinese people are going to get a break.
The Tang dynasty ruled from AD 618 to 907. The Tang period was one of art
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People in the Han and Roman dynasties expressed their necessity for technology in assisting labor. In the Han dynasty, technology controlled the destruction of the Yellow River and appeased the peasants by providing an easier lifestyle. During the Roman Dynasty, technology assists in daily life for the building of public works along with the life of lower-class inhabitants. A document that would aid in describing the attitude towards technology would be a private letter from a peasant or low-class citizen, conveying his position on the use of technology.
In the ancient Han Dynasty, technology subdued the strenuous workload of the average peasant, creating a positive attitude towards
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Dynastic China Essay
LA/SS Pd. 5/6
Although the 418 years the Han Dynasty controlled would seem like a long time to have the ability to rule a country, the Han Dynasty exerted vast control over China itself to maintain a complex bureaucratic government during their whole rule. During this rule, Confucianism was highly held. Throughout the whole empire, there were classes to support everyone’s role in society and who to respect as their elder and superior. The order was like this: Emperor, King/Governor, State officials and Nobles and Scholars, Peasants, Artisans and Merchants, Soldiers, and at the bottom were slaves. One very important thing in the government of the Han
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A question academics and historians have asked throughout time is simply what is Civilization. Civilization can be defined as an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture science, industry and government has been reached. With that stated we must now look upon the question which is pertinent to our studies and this paper. That question is what is Chinese Civilization, and in order to answer this question we shall delve into the history of China itself taking examples from Chinese history going as far back as to chinaâ€™s earliest empires to the present day.
We will look at details from the Han Dynasty from 206BCE-220CE, the Tang Dynasty from 618 CE-907CE, and the
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civilization. The Han dynasty is when we first see Ancient China economically flourish because of their clever tactics. In the Han dynasty they created what is called the Silk Road, which enabled trading from China to neighbouring countries such as Greece, India, The Persian Empire, and Rome. This Silk Road enabled them to trade silk and import gold which expanded their trade greatly. The Silk Road also helped in providing new cultural ideas to ancient China from other civilizations to further improve. Another resource that promoted the growth of the industry in Han China was Iron. Iron weapons equipped the imperial army and iron tools also helped produce the grain that helped feed the soldiers
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China toward the middle of the Zhou Dynasty, Taosim and Confucianism. Yin and Yang is one of the best known Chinese images. Together they represent the Chinese religious philosophies that sum up life’s basic opposing elements, such as, pain and pleasure, light and dark, good and evil, and etc.
* China’s name originated from the Qin dynasty. The Qin standardized the writing system. The Great Wall was also created by the Qin. The Great Wall still remains the world’s most remarkable structure.
* The Han dynasty took over after the Qin. They managed to restore Confucianism to favor, making it the state philosophy. Under this dynasty, the Silk Road was established. The Silk Road made it
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people is sacrificed.
In Han and Tang Dynasty, they stop practice this but they do allow the dead body’s family to bury together with them only after they dead. But after Han and Tang which is Song Dynasty (960 – 1279) they start practice again as Khitan, Jurchen, Mongolian, Manchu moving into Central China and they have the tradition of Sacrificial Funeral.
This practice lasted until Ming Dynasty, the imperial Court start this practices again. Whenever the Emperor dies, all his wives who don’t give birth must be buried with Emperor. According to this article , the sacrificial method conducted during Ming Dynasty was cruel such as Inject Mercury into Odalisque and Hanged to death. The
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country also experienced a renaissance as foreign influences were introduced through dance, art and music. The Grand Canal continued to play a key role in the country as the population in the South grew and new crops such as; tea, sugar and grains led to an explosion in agriculture. The Chinese culture and country saw extreme growth during the Tang Dynasty and with this many inventions were introduced, and the most important may have been hard currency. In his reference book, Han Yu and the Tang Search for Unity, Charles Hartman explains how the currency in China changed during this period; the increase in trade brought an increase in the use of money and saw the invention of money drafts
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them. The individual did not have any legal rights in Tokugawa Japan. The family was the smallest legal entity and the maintenance of family status and privileges was of great importance at all levels of society.
The economy of the Ming Dynasty was the largest in the world during that period. The manufacturing industry was more varied and advanced than the Song. The Ming reverted to the old laissez faire policies of the Han by privatizing the salt and tea industries. By the middle of the Ming Dynasty, powerful groups of wealthy merchants had replaced the state as the dominant movers behind Chinese industry. The Hongwu Emperor enacted pro-agricultural policies. Farmers introduced many
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Did Han Yu’s memorial on the Bone of Buddha contributed to religious intolerance and persecution of Buddhism in the late Tang dynasty?
Chinese Buddhism reached its highest point of popularity and influence during Han Yu’s lifetime, and this matter as a Confucian greatly concerned him.
Han Yu was afraid and disappointed that the traditional Chinese value system as family ancestors worship will be lost if Buddhism’s influences will continue to thrive and gain more influence on every level in society.
He did not agree that Confucian values were excluded from Buddhist and Daoist values and to see bringing” a finger “of Buddha, (who was a foreigner to China), was blasphemy and
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part of the profit. However, because the merchant is morally wrong and decides to steal the greater portion of the profit, leaving the little portion to the officials. This leads to a bigger picture that Bo-JuYi depicts in the poem. The government is centralized but with less control on the local level therefore, they are not as regulated and effective in controlling the local source of profit from Iron and Salt as they are in the Han dynasty as Bo Ju-Yi says “But Sang Hong-Yang. Died many years ago: this happened not in the Han alone, it happens also now.” In the Han dynasty, local profit is controlled well enough that each party is getting the amount of profit that they should be getting
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States Period (453-221BC), the states of Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao, Wei and Qin all built fortifications to protect their own borders. After Qin Shi Huang defeated all opposing states and unified China in 221 BCE, he established the Chin Dynasty and built a new wall by linking up the remaining fortifications and extending them (par. 2). During the period of Han emperor Wudi (141-87 BCE), the wall was reinforced and extended for about 6000 kilometers (par.3), and the construction lasted for 20 years (Encyclopedia Britannica). After the downfall of the Han Dynasty, the construction of the Great Wall was halted. It was the Ming Emperors, who restored the buildings of the Wall after ending the
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also standardized axel lengths for carts to ensure their roads were the right width. This increased all had the effect of increasing trade.
Ancient Chinese Governments Continue: Dynasty after Dynasty
The Han Dynasty that followed the Qin ruled over a golden age in Chinese history. There aggressive policy towards the “barbarian” nomads greatly expanded their frontiers in all directions. They had used the nomads mounted strategies against them, pushing into Central Asia and making contact with the Persians. This connected the Roman, Persian and Chinese trade routes, creating the great Silk Road. China’s traders and government prospered from the government held monopoly on Silk. Secrets of
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spoon as the needle that was thrown down upon a table that was engraved with the compass points. In the Han dynasty, the "south-pointer" was used by travelers in China, with the south-pointer, the travelers will not lose their way (Gans, 2002). Later, the compass becomes a navigational device on ships, it can show the direction to the sailors when they are shipping on the sea.
The compass can show directions when people are travel or trade; it reduces the chance of getting lost. The invention of compass improves trade with other countries. Chinese voyager Zheng He is famous for using the compass for navigational aid. Also it made discovery of new places possible and it is reliable in
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and created the first Chinese Empire. After the Qin the Han dynasty ruled China they spread imperial control far to the south and to the west deep into central Asia along the Silk Road. The Boarders they established have lasted to the present day. They often succeeded in converting the people on the boarders to the Chinese culture but sometimes met resistance.
By 2 C.E the second census showed that the total population dropped from 58 million to 48 million, however the regional distribution shifted from76 percent in north and 24 percent in the south, to 54 percent and 46 percent. Natural turbulence and pressure from the Xiongnu and the Tibetans caused the drop in population and may have
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moral education. He believed that desires should be guided and restrained by the rules of propriety and that character should be molded by an orderly observance of rites and by the practice of music. This code serves as a powerful influence on character by properly directing emotions and by providing inner harmony. Hsün-tzu was the main exponent of ritualism in Confucianism.After a brief period of eclipse in the 3rd century BC, Confucianism was revived during the Han dynasty (206 BC-AD 220). The Confucian works, copies of which had been destroyed in the preceding period, were restored to favor, canonized, and taught by learned scholars in national academies. The works also formed the
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, or 385 days.
Paper was invented by Cai Lun in 105 AD, which was one of the four great inventions by the Chinese("Chinese paper invention,”). Cai Lun not only greatly enhanced the papermaking technique, but also made it possible to use a variety of materials, such as tree bark, hemp, rags, etc. The earliest paper discovered in Fufeng County, Shaanxi, was made from hemp during the Western Han (206 BC - 24 AD). Bamboo paper was produced in the Tang Dynasty (608 - 907). Xuan paper made in Jing County, Anhui, is probably the best-known paper, which is mainly used in Chinese painting and calligraphy("Chinese paper invention,”). Xuan paper is soft, smooth, white, absorbent and very
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Confucian Classics-the ancient texts recovered during the Han Dynasty that Confucian scholars treated as sacred scriptures.
Silk Road- the trade routes across central Asia through which Chinese silk and other items were traded
Eunuchs-castrated males who played an important role as palace servants
Age of division- the period after the fall of the Han dynasty when china was politically divided
Grand canal- a canal, built during the Sui dynasty that connected the yellow and Yangzi Rivers. Notable for strengthening china’s internal cohesion and economic development
Pure land- a school of Buddhism that taught that calling on the Buddha Amitabha and his chief helper
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Pottery is a skill man acquired very early in cultural development. “In the Far East, pottery has been found from around 10,000 BC” (Hutt 69). The Tang Dynasty period, 618 to 907 AD is only one small section of history on the Chinese pottery timeline, but it is noted especially for its ceramic funerary animals and its change from earthenware to stoneware. There is a strong foreign influence during this period and it is evident in the ceramics as well as other art (Medley 77).
During the Tang period, there are gradual improvements in the earthenware and stoneware. It seems that there is a search for the “pure white body” (Medley 97). For centuries, there had been a continued effort
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. Without this tool seeds are tossed by hand over the ground resulting in waste and inefficient, uneven growth. Chinese farmers were using seed drills as early as the 2nd Century BC.
· Iron Plows : One of the major developments of the ancient Chinese agriculture was the use of the iron moldboard plows. Though probably first developed in the 4th century BC and promoted by the central government, they were popular and common by the Han Dynasty. A major invention was the adjustable strut which, by altering the distance of the blade and the beam, could precisely set the depth of the plow.
· Deep Drilling : By the first century BC the Chinese had developed the technology for deep drilling
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deterioration was also led by the decline in Manchu leadership. During the history of Qing dynasty, racial prejudice against the Han Chinese was obvious. Han Chinese were obstructed to make holder of lucrative offices, even they were much better than the Manchus. Imperial examinations were anachronous, just focused on the memorization of orthodoxy texts and didn’t allow the imagination or initiative. The examination failure rate climbed rapidly, as the system lacked the flexibility to accommodate the ever-greater numbers of aspirants. Therefore, many intellectuals were unemployed and provided their leadership for rebellious groups.
Government finances also had a weighty pressure. Qian-long
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B.C. There are a lot of written texts of the Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD) about pipa music played and the stories that inspired the composition for those pipa pieces. Since the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the pipa is one of the most popular Chinese instruments, and has maintained its appeal in solo as well as chamber genres. The pipa technique is characterised by spectacular finger dexterity and virtuosi programmatic effects. Rolls, slaps, pizzicato, harmonics and noises are often combined into extensive tone poems vividly describing famous battles or other exciting scenes. The instrument is also capable of more lyrical effects in pieces inspired by poetry, landscapes and historical themes
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ground the Chinese used cast iron drills to reach far down to the natural gases that they used as fuel to evaporate water from brine to produce salt. The gases were then brought up using the bamboo pipes to where they needed it (Stevenh, 2009).
The seventh invention of the Chinese was the wheelbarrow created in the Han Dynasty by a general named Jugo Liang. His invention at first was missing the handles as we see today on wheelbarrows, but as his invention was developed later on the handles were added. The wheelbarrow was first used for military purposes giving the physical advantage over the enemies using it as mobile barricades and for transportation (Clark, 2012).
The eighth and final
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, to Tibetan Buddhism (also known as Lamaism), and the Dai, Blang and Deang to Theravada Buddhism. Quite a few Miao, Yao and Yi are Christians. Religious Han Chinese tend to practice Buddhism, Christianity or Taoism.
Buddhism was introduced to China from India approximately in the first century A.D., becoming increasingly popular and the most influential religion in China after the fourth century. Tibetan Buddhism, as a branch of Chinese Buddhism, is popular primarily in Tibet and Inner Mongolia. Now China has more than 13,000 Buddhist temples.
Islam probably first reached China in the mid-seventh century. The Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) witnessed the zenith of prosperity of Islam. Now China
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Although Buddhism began in India, it gradually transferred to China in the 200's. There, it was met by mixed reviews in all classes. Some dynasties preferred its philosophy and promise of afterlife to the rigid Confucian ideals that were previously imposed although the Chinese turned to Buddhism for it promises of eternal enlightenment during times of hardship and invasion, the period that followed led to many attempts to reconcile the religion with the traditional Confucianism, increasing many views that Buddhism was a barbaric foreign invasion.
The period that followed the Han dynasty was known as the Warring States period, during which China suffered frequent invasions from Central
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Wheelbarrow was invented by Jugo Liang, who lived during the Han Dynasty. He came up with the concept of a one-wheeled cart used to carry heavy objects, mainly for military purposes. Liang’s Wheelbarrow did not include handles. People would grip the sides of the barrow to push it, but it was uncomfortable and lacked the user of control. Liang’s idea wasn’t perfect, but his concept did allow others to better the invention (Clark, 2013).
Alcohol was made by the Chinese, using the process of fermentation and distillation of foods such as vinegar and wheat. The intended use of the liquids, were to be used on foods, such as a commandment. People whom eat the sauces found them to be biter and made
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was born, China was split into three states: Chao, Han, and Wei. The three states started building walls to keep the other states and nomads from attacking, yet still the states warred against each other. As the Era of Warring States went on, the Qin "ate up its neighbors as a silkworms devours a mulberry leaf" and thus became the ultimate Empire of China (Silverberg 16). In 246 B.C.E., Shi Huang-di became the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty. He standardized everything from currency to lengths of wagon wheel axles to the written language. As his empire grew, he needed some sort of defense system to keep his boundaries straight. He realized that connecting the old walls built during the Era
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husbands. “Honoring of chaste widows dated from at least Han dynasty, which first institutionalized Confucian morality as imperial dogma”. Chastity law, at first sight was beneficial for a widow because it is granted widows the rights of property and independence. But there were problems in terms of rights of property and independence. Here, I would like to focus on the rich widows (widows with property) versus the poor widows in terms of chastity law as a big picture of my argument.
The Qing chastity law in general granted the rights to property and independence of widows. Here, my argument is what about in case of the poor widows with less property. For a rich widow, as long as her
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settlers, the Han Dynasty looked to support from neighboring countries. In order to spark interest in the opportunity, the precious material they have kept as a private commodity was used to open up trade. As traffic began, silk predominately, but also “furs, ceramics, spices, jade, bronze and lacquer objects and iron” were exported westward while China primarily “imported gold, gems, ivory, glass, perfumes, dyes and textiles.” As this iconic road developed, the defense of the trade routes built up to deter robbers and thieves, as well as increased the protection of the Han Dynasty from external enemies.
Many think of the Silk Road as a single road that traveled exclusively east to west
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and or Define: Qin Shihuanngdi, Qin Empire, Legalism, Han Empire, Silk Road, Great Wall of China
(Han) China and Rome Collapse
T. Read pp. 136 – 141
Question: What internal and external factors contributed to the collapse of the Roman and Chinese Empires?
China: Belief Systems
U. Read pp. 165 – 172
Identify and or Define: Mandate of Heaven, Zhou Dynasty, Legalism (again), Confucianism, Analects
V. Read pp. 172 – 174
Identify and or Define: Laozi / Lao Tze, Daoism / Taoism, Daodejing, Yin and Yang (symbol), yellow Turbans
Greek and Roman Belief Systems
W. Read pp. 184 – 187
Think about English class at THHS.
X. Read pp. 187 – 188
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, and Daoist views differ?
Confucian believed that if everyone understands their place in society, order and stability will occur. Legalists believed in a harsh government and strict laws and impose harsh punishments. Daoist viewed the government as unnatural.
What ethical code of conduct did Confucius promote?
Superior to subordinates
Why is the Han period considered a golden age of Chinese civilization?
Science(observing and measuring movements of stars and planets to create more accurate calendars) Medicine(acupuncture, herbal remedies, diagnosed diseases) Technology(making paper from wood pulp, fishing reels,wheelbarrows,suspension bridges)
What are the main achievements
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Chinese women were always taught to be submissive to their fathers and husbands. It all began with the Han Dynasty which states that scholars and rulers had developed a male dominance. During this Dynasty Confucian thoughts had a great influence on the official education that has been passed down year after year. In the later dynasties it has been known that male authority had been highly enforced during this time causing the women to have a lower status. A way for a women to higher there status was to become a mother. However, if a women had a baby girl it was frowned upon, baby boys were what was always wanted in the family so they can carry on the family name. By having a girl in the family
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think you would be amazed if you counted every time you touched, used, or have seen paper in one day of your life. Paper is known to have been used as far back as 5000 years ago in Egypt. The Egyptians used what is known as papyrus which is not what we use today in 2011. It was during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) that paper was not only invented, but they also made it new and improved. Cai Lun in 105 CE improved both the technique and the quality of paper. “Modern Technologies have simplified the process but the method of Cai Lun basically stays unchanged” today.
(Sayre, 2012, p 226).
The Chinese had developed a way to put print onto paper by carving words and pictures into
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, the Romans were obsessed with Silk. They were enamored by this delicate fabric and could not get enough of it. The Han Dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), in a showing of early capitalism, implemented one of today’s supply and demand business strategies: they monopolized the market by keeping the silk production technology a secret. Notably, the Chinese provided revolutionary inventions to the west: paper making, printing, compass, gun powder and ultimately silk making [ (Chinese Travel Guide.com n.d.) ]
By the end of the 14th century, the Silk Road fell to its demise as a road less traveled. A new conduit took over the role of shaping globalization. Maritime travel enabled globalization
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correct that we can learn from our past, the author has made a sweeping assumption about human character. If people are eager and able to avert their forefathers’ failures and repeat their successes, this may be plausible. However, in reality, people are influenced by a multitude of factors and circumstances that they have no control over. For instance, in my society, China has an undisrupted history of more than 5000 years and the causes and effects that account for a government’s success and failure are studied extensively. Undoubtedly, corruption was one of the primary factors that caused a dynasty to fail. Yet, in today’s China, corruption is still prevalent, if not more. Although many
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triangles, or circles have been found on ancient pottery pieces unearthed at Banpo. These designs show an early interest in spatial ordering. Chinese geometry developed without concern for geometrical definitions. But during the Han dynasty, Chinese mathematical knowledge was for the first time separated from other domains and recorded in the Jiuzhang suanshu. The geometry of Juizhang suanshu is not precisely an autonomous body of knowledge and consist essentially problems pertaining to planimetry, stereometry, and right-angled triangles.
The Hindu geometry originated in a very remote age in connection with the structure of the alters for the Vedic sacrifices. In the
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leaf buds, buds produced by this tea quality is very good, belonging to the tea treasures. Tea originated in China, has a long record of tea in Chinese history goes back to the earliest Stone Age Yan. Chinese tea as early as the Western Han Dynasty when they spread abroad, Han Dynasty envoy had sent messengers Indochina, in addition to the items brought gold, brocade silk, as well as tea. When Northern Qi Wu Yong rooms next year, Chinese exports of tea with silk, porcelain spread to Turkey.
2. General Attribute of Tea culture
2.1 Introduction of Green Tea
Generally, name of the tea it is often hear : Longjing, Biluochun , Mao Feng, Mei tea, Gunpowder , Japan Sentea , Gyokuro green
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725 A.D. It was composed of a wheel no bigger than a room; that could turn at the same speed as the Earth. The clock was powered by dripping water that would fall on the wheel, causing it to make one revolution every 24 hours. The clock was made of iron and bronze and had a system of gears
and wheels that would make the clock turn. A sphere sat atop the clock for observing the position of the stars. Another clock wouldn't be constructed until two centuries later. In 1092 it was known as the 'Cosmic Engine'. Lastly, is the invention of the seismograph by Zhang Heng in 132 AD. Zhang was known as a master scientist during the Easter Han Dynasty. The seismograph was an early
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State Library. Destroying literature and persecuting Confucians was an extension of the original plans to strengthen the Qin dynasty composed by Shi Huang (246-210 BCE). They were carried out further by Prime Minister Li Si (208 BCE). He wanted to impose his ideals of government on other Chinese states that he had conquered. Books were one of the biggest threats and were most likely burnt out of fear. The common people were eager to learn. "To destroy their literature was to burn a bridge from common knowledge to deeper thought and introspection. By establishing intellectual conformity, Shi Huang hoped to stymie criticism of imperial rule which could lead to revolution"(Hutton 81
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is hindered by dangerous shoals of sediment and rapids. When the dam is built, two five-stage locks will raise deep-draft ships and a ship lift will service smaller vessels. Thus, the interior of China will be open to economic growth. E.g. This will improve passage and increase shipping volumes between Yichang and the major industrial city of Chongqing.
Â· The worldâ€™s largest dam can be a tourist attraction which can earn more revenue for the country
Â· Seasonal flooding is a seasonal problem along lower Yangtze, occurring approximately every 5 years and has been occurring for 2000 years since the Han dynasty, causing millions of deaths and also the loss of homes for
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states into an advance civilization. During the Chou Dynasty (1122-249 B.C.), China has developed the philosophical thinkers such as Confucius, Mo Ti, and Mencius. Under the control of Ch'in Shih Huang Ti, the feudal states were united and the extensive building of the Great Wall of China had begun. From the Han Dynasty, China has started commercial trading in the West. During the T’ang Dynasty, the golden age of Chinese history developed the painting, sculpture, poetry, and a mass production of books. In the last of the dynasties, Ming overthrew the Mongol, and in turn the Manchus overthrew the Mings. From 1839 to 1842, there was the Anglo-Chinese War, which caused instability and concessions
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delineating a country or region.
99. toleration – an act or instance of tolerating.
100. monotheistic – belief in one god
101. polytheistic – belief in more than one god
102. medieval – style of the middle ages
103. Roman Catholic Church
104. Greek Orthodox
105. Brahmanism in India
106. Han China
108. Eightfold Path
109. Five Pillars of Islam
110. Ten Commandments
111. tenets– any opinion,principle,doctrine,dogma,etc.
113. Byzantine Empire
114. Islamic World
115. Muhammad – God of Islamic beliefs
117.-Holy Roman Empire
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context, must personalize the rites (making the process all the more realistic and intimate than the ways of the Zhou).
The abovementioned reciprocation process of calligraphic arts reflects the work embodies the corporeality of the artist. Under the premise that each calligraphic character is something of an autograph, a text from the Feicao Shu, a treatise on calligraphy from the Eastern Han dynasty elucidates: “All men differ in their energy (qi) and blood (xue), and vary in their sinew and bones; the heart-mind (xin) may be dispersed or dense; the hand may be skilled or clumsy. The beauty or ugliness of calligraphy is in the heart-mind and hand.” The famous saying, ‘Zi ru qi ren,’ or “Writing
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trading voyages to the East bringing back gold, silver, ivory and precious stones.
* Tiglath-Pileser III attacks Gaza in order to control trade along the Incense Route.
* The Greek Ptolemaic dynasty exploits trading opportunities with India prior to the Roman involvement.
* The cargo from the India and Egypt trade is shipped to Aden.
Roman trade with India according to the Periplus Maris Erythraei, 1st century CE.
* The Silk Road is established after the diplomatic travels of the Han Dynasty Chinese envoy Zhang Qian to Central Asia, with Chinese goods making their way to India, Persia, and the Roman Empire, and vice versa.
* With the establishment of Roman
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, though created in a remote area of the world and nearly lost during the Han dynasty, contain several universal ideas, including the idea of chaos and the cosmic egg, and also have helped to define the roles of the family in the Chinese culture.
Chinese myth contains three basic creation stories. One involves Yin and Yang, one revolves around the goddess Nu Kua, and one discusses P'an Ku in conjunction with the yin and yang. For our purposes we will use the story involving P'an Ku, the most universal of the myths. The character P'an Ku, meaning coiled antiquity, can be found in the story of Nu Kua and in the different variations of the yin and yang myth. His story can be read in Hsu
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part of China “The Four Books and The Five Classics” and “the Oracle Bones” are two of the most famous texts in the ancient culture. “The Oracle Bones” was used mainly for record keeping. And within “The Four books and The Five Classics” the most important texts were the “I Ching” and “The Shujing” . Chinese literature as a whole covers a range of topics such as Poetry, Astronomy, Constellations and Astrology. Another considerable part of Chinese Culture would be the “Four Pillars of Dynasty” this has an early reference to Heaven and Earth.
Martial arts are very recognized worldwide. A lot of children in Ireland and around the globe start basic Karate and Kung Fu at an early age. Different
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China, and around the world, between alcohol as a food staple and the potential disruptiveness to society by drunkenness. However, as opposed to Egypt, which ignored the dichotomy in their laws, and Mesopotamia, which only nominally addressed it, in China there was an effort to enforce laws on the morality of drink.
From the 1100’s B.C.E., wine vessels became common funerary objects in upper class and lordly tombs from the period. Approximately 70% of pottery found in Han Dynasty tombs are wine vessels (Figure 1). Wine was used as an offering to river and mountain gods. Although many kinds of meat offerings were acceptable as well (cattle, pigs, and dogs) wine was the only acceptable