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Demography is the statistical study of human populations. It can be a very general science that can be applied to any kind of dynamic living population, i.e., one that changes over time or space (see population dynamics). It encompasses the study of the size, structure, and distribution of these populations, and spatial and/or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, aging, and death.
“Demo-” from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos, means “the people” and “-graphy” from γράφω graphō, means “measurement.”
Demographic analysis can be applied to whole societies or to groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality, religion and ethnicity. Institutionally, demography is
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Life history tradeoffs.
• Reproductive female red deer on Scottish island have lower survival rates than non-reproductive females of same age
•Adult kestrels (sparrow hawks) have better survival if their broods are artificially reduced, and poorer survival if the broods are artificially enlarged. Fig 52.6, Campbell 6 Fig. 52.7, Campbell 7
Demography and Population Dynamics
November 17 2006 Announcements • we’re now 1 lecture behind; I hope to catch up next time
by combining two lectures on species interactions • No class Friday Dec. 8. Review session scheduled for Monday Dec. 11, 6-7:30 pm 2050 VLSB--come with questions
See Fig 52.5 Campbell 6
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Virginia and Massachusetts Bay were two colonies that were colonized by England but both developed into different societies. Some of the contributing factors to how they both developed differently can be found from the geography, demography, ideology, and economy of both colonies. During the 17th century, England showed interested in the colonization of America. Some of the reasons why English emigrants showed interest in moving to America were because of religious and economic purposes. Some settlers from England wanted to worship their religion in their own way while others wanted more opportunity in land ownership. As a result of the colonization of America, Virginia and
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What is Demography?
Demography is the scientific study of human population, including its size, distribution, composition, and the factors that determine changes in its size, distribution, and composition.
Objects: Dynamic VS Static
1. Size: the number of population in a given areas at a given time.
2. Distribution: population dispersion in geographic space at a given time.
3. Composition: the number of person in sex, age, and other “demographic” categories.
4. Population dynamics: birth, death, and migration.
5. Socioeconomic determinants and consequences of population change --- Population Study.
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One of the most important economic changes was the Industrial Revolution. Before industrialization, civilians would make their own products and goods or even go have it made for them somewhere in town. Industrial growth changed the way of life in America. Work had changed because factories were being built, opening jobs for people. It speeded the production of goods and other necessities. The factors that led to industrialization came from the ideas of the geography, demography, and the law.
The geography of the United States helped industry growth. America was surrounded with forests. In chapter 20, â€œAn Industrial Society,â€ from the
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advert. This is the first stage where we compromise in terms of creative thinking as we fail to touch base with one of the basic characteristics of Marketing Communications Mix which means dramatizing company’s product through artful use of sound, color and print.
In context of Nepal which bears little resemblance to that of an Indian setting, the same advertisement is dubbed into Nepali and broadcasted regardless of the demography and the economic orientation that influences consumer behavior. How something researched in India can be assumed to be true for the Nepalese consumer market, is something to be given a serious thought to. We are just operating under a hypothesis that if some
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Demographics: A Timeline and History
Hazel M Morrow
South University Online
Demographics: A Timeline and History
The human population was estimated to 7 billion in 2013. All these humans did not just appear overnight. The population has increased over the past tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Within recent years the growth rate of the human population has accelerated, causing explosions in population size and density all over the world. This has been due to many different factors. Advances in many different areas of science and technology have helped to increase the lifespan and survivability of humans. The area of social science that focuses on population is called demography
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dominance. For Example, Siemens Has shifted 1,500 customer service jobs from India to the Philippines to take advantage of lower wages and lower turnover rates that is called outsourcing.
1. What challenges do graying populations create for companies?
Answer: Since there are more people retiring, there will be fewer working people in the labor market. Companies will find it hard to source for workers in a labor market that comprises of the elderly.
Since elderly people are regarded as less productive, the quality of the work force will be reduced. Companies that hire a graying population will have its production output slowed down by this demography
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Macro-Environment (external environment)
The macroenvironment refers to all forces that are part of the larger society and affect the microenvironment. It includes concepts such as demography, economy, natural forces, technology, politics, and culture.
Demography refers to studying human populations in terms of size, density, location, age, gender, race, and occupation. This is a very important factor to study for marketers and helps to divide the population into market segments and target markets. An example of demography is classifying groups of people according to the year they were born. These classifications can be referred to as baby boomers, who are born between
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Strategic Business Units: Smaller entity businesses under an umbrella company.
BCG Matrix: Cash Cow, Star, Question Mark, Dog
Product to Market Expansion grid:
* Existing, Existing= Market penetration
* Existing, New = Market Development
* New, Existing = Product development
* New, New = Diversification
Marketing Mix: The 4 P’s
Define Positioning: The way by which the marketers attempt to create a distinct impression in the customer's mind
Environmental scanning: Looking into what factors can hurt your business
- Macro: indirect effect
a. Demography: Study of human population change
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instance the land use and demography.
The vulnerability of LEDC’s (Low economically developed countries) has a large effect upon the response and recovery to a volcanic eruption. The Nevada Del Ruiz volcano erupted in 1985 and left devastating impacts as a result of the demography; such as the densely populated areas surrounding. The pyroclastic flows and melting glaciers that created lahars killed 22,000 people and 150,000 animals due the speeds of the hazards travelling at 50km per hour; mostly suffocating those that died. However as well as this there were many long term impacts that had a huge influence due to the destruction of basic needs and services that the LEDC’s primarily relied
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Retrieved 20 June 2012 from:
WikiBooks (January 2012). Introduction to Sociology/Demography
Retrieved 20 June 2012 from:
Tobi, Jim (2008). Internet usage by age, gender, race and more
Retrieved 21 June 2012 from:
Zoll, Andrew (March 2006). Demographics: The population hourglass
Retrieved 21 June 2012 from:
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of their creative potential and performance advantages of team diversity. Heterogeneous teams contain members who are diverse in cultures, lifestyles, demography, and experiences. Organizational demography share a common demographic attribute, such as length of service in the organization, education level, race, sex, and age. Team diversity can help organizations improve in team problem-solving, increase creativity, and performance. Members of a diverse team should focus on each other’s differences, not similarities. If the members of the team understand their differences, it will lead to higher levels of effectiveness.
Individuals can only get some much accomplished on their own. When a
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in management and firm performance: the influence of growth orientation and organizational culture’ Journal of Business Research Vol.56(12), pp.1009-1019
Ferran, E 1994, ‘Workplace Cultural Diversity, A Managers Journal’, Journal of Child & Family Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-5.
Gates, M & Mark, B ‘Demographic diversity, value congruence, and workplace outcomes in acute care’ Research in Nursing & Health, 2012, Vol.35(3), pp.265-276
Gonzalez, J & Denisi A, 2009, ‘Cross-level effects of demography and diversity climate on organizational attachment and firm effectiveness’, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, Vol.30(1), pp.21-40
Lieber, L 2012, ‘Considerations for attracting and
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and lifestyle McDonalds has adopted itself according to the convenience and lifestyle of the Indian consumers, as India has a huge vegetarian population so McDonalds came up with a different and new product line which includes items like Mc Veggie burger and Mc Aloo tikki Burger. They also made McDonalds as a place to relax and even for entertainment.
3) Behavioral segmentation: Occasions, for e.g. Birthday Parties of kids McDonalds can get more customers by whom they can get most of the share of India Fast Food Industry but they should emphasis on their Targeting technique.
Target Market of Mcdonalds
Mc Donald's target market is every segment of the demography! The segments of
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Chinese government needs to encourage brilliant experts of demography and statistics to work in the agency. The agencies in the western area should provide some guidelines only for rural residents. According to the author in “Two imbalances emerge in China’s population growth,” “birth rate imbalance between urban and rural areas and the imbalance between eastern and western areas have emerged at the same time.” (Xinhua New Agency, 2004, p.1). What rural areas have had a problem of birth control means that rural areas need the agency’s help. The agency can solve this problem. For example, actually non-government organization (NGO) in China informed “contraceptive methods and healthy baby
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents 1
1. Question 1
2. Introduction 1
3. Contributions 1
i. Demography 1
ii. Disease prevention 2
iii. Female status 3
iv. Mental liberation 5
4. Conclusion 6
The most important invention in human history
What do you think is the most important invention in human history? Give reasons and specific examples in your answer.
The following work deals with the contributions of condom. The main goal of the paper is to prove that condom is the most important invention in human history. The paper focuses on 4 aspects: 1.demography; 2.disease prevention; 3. female status; 4
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Effect of Industries in social Life
Vishal Mandaviya (PM002213)
Masters in Habitat Management, CEPT University
What is Gamthal4
Social Infrastructure ……………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………7
Road & transportation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8
Water Supply & Drainage
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could have resulted from
childbirth. Before legal abortion, such women's choices were
limited to dangerous illegal abortion or dangerous childbirth.
In a case-controlled study women whose own health is
compromised during pregnancy
are more likely to miscarry and to deliver babies who are
sick. Their babies are also more likely to die after birth.
Women's Health, Am Journal of Public Health, and Demography, all stated that women whose pregnancies are unwanted are less likely to
get prenatal care, more likely to use cigarettes
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blame and not rock music is blamed for two youngest who committed suicide. She talks about demography and the baby boomlet to carry on with the hit movie Home Alone concluding that there should be a Mom Alone movie to give mothers a break. She talks about the changes in the environment of children, and how their role models and toys are changing, just as the world they live in. She follows with mother's expectations of their children. The reader gets the feeling that her children are Quindlen's biggest source of inspiration as well as expectations.In her third section on the news, simply entitled On The News, Quindlen deals with newsworthy matter. Three subjects are developed: Anita Hill sex
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products and services to customers. The evaluation of alternatives is in its early stages and the company cannot predict the timing or likelihood of ceasing to be regulated as an SLHC.
It is important for H&R to analyze the appropriate environmental factors, on specific demography and area bases, and respond with correct actions to maintain a competitive advantage.
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retention (Robertson et al., 1991).
Hence, all this debates fundamentally focuses on individual and organizational performance.
Gary S. Becker Investment in human capital: a theoretical analysis
Agarwala, T. (2003). Innovative human resource practices and organizational commitment: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(2), 175–197.
Bantel, K. (1993). Strategic clarity in banking: Role of top management-team demography. Psychology Reports, 73, 1187-1203.
Barney, J. B. (1995). Looking inside for competitive advantage. Academy of Management Executive, 9(4), 49–61.
Bates, T. (1990). Entrepreneur human capital inputs and small business longevity. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 72(4), 551-559.
Becker, B., & Barry, G. (1996). The impact of human resource management on organizational performance: Progress and prospects. Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 779–801.
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The Gaza Strip:
* About 1.7 million inhabitants, with about 1 million being un-registered refugees
* Many are decedents of Palestinians that sought refuge during the Arab-Israeli war in the late 1940’s
* Large population growth, due to an extremely high fertility rate of about 5 children per woman and a current median age about 18 years
* Religious distribution is about 99.3% Sunni Muslim and 0.7% Christian
Economic & Social Situation:
* After the Hamas group won elections in 2006 (seen as a terrorist group by the US, Canada, and the European Union) all funds to the Palestinian government have been frozen by these countries
* The strip has been
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practice increasingly used by
sociologists carrying out qualitative research.
These suggestions are presented in the right-hand column of
Table 1. Other proposals include the elimination of some
disciplines that, whilst of course making an important general
contribution to any kind of research in any field, do not appear
Table 1: Disciplines involved in Socio-economic Research
Kuper and Kuper categories
Suggestions for RESPECT
! but integrate with sociology?
Business Studies, Industrial Relations and
! and include statistics?
Family and Kinship
Include with anthropology/sociology
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CURRENT MARKET CONDITIONS COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
Amazon’s market is a vast and filled with thousands of competitors. The online ecommerce market has grown exponentially with each passing year. With advancements in technology and new demography gain access to the web, online sales have grown and grown. The trend of Black Friday shopping for holiday gifts has slowed over the years. The new trend for shopping is purchases made on online vendor’s sites. The age of brick and mortar stores has been surpassed with ecommerce’s. The ability to purchase products internationally from home, has allowed consumers to enjoy the comforts of their own home to purchase any item the need or want. This
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combinations.The research is commendable as it uses several measures of performance unlike in earlier studies made by Pichevin & Hurtwig, (1996) or Tsui et al., (1992) who evaluated that sex is a more salient social category among women than men. The study builds up on Similarity-attraction theory and Status expectations theory, identifying multiple factors conducive to gender diversity and revealing why firms differ in their structural choices. However, other theories for instance the relational demography research is consistent with this interpretation and has shown that sex diversity may enhance group effectiveness (Martins, Milliken, Wiesenfeld, & Salgado, 1999). The researchers added
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of global hosiery market over the forecast period.
Global hosiery market is segmented by: products, size, demography, price range, distribution
channel and by region
Global Hosiery Market by Products
Knee highs, Hold-ups
Global Hosiery Market by SIZE
Persistence Market Research
Hosiery Market: Global Industry Analysis and Forecast 2016 - 2022
Global Hosiery Market by Demography
Global Hosiery Market by Price Range
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they see them as more affordable options. This will create more sales for Coca Cola in the short run.
The globalization trend has made accessibility to Coca Cola drinks easier, and more people, including those from emerging markets such as China, India and Vietnam, are exposed to their presence. This made entry into the international markets easier for Coca Cola, and will create more demand for their drinks.
The world population is expected to increase dramatically to exceed 10 billion in 2050. In the mean time, there are a few noticeable demography trends in many markets. Firstly, the general education level is increasing as schooling options are made more
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are more difficult when employees are highly specialized and experienced, or the lack of communication between employer and employee exist. In other words when control cannot be exercised (Vancouver, 1996).
The organization defined as a rational system or
organism was rooted in
Barnard (1938) Blau and Scott (1962) and March and Simon (1958). As evidenced by Scott (2003) rational systems were misleading written with Blau (1962), and have evolved to other types of systems. Flaws of the theory are identification of signals, social processes, and goals in the society, which change constantly
(Carroll & Hannan, 2000)
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are properly researched to ensure proper and successful marketing of these new products - successful marketing of this product is vital to achieve the organisationâ€™s goal in delivering quality products to specifically selected target markets. DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT Kotler et al (2007) refers to demography as â€œthe study of human populations in terms of size, density, location, age, sex, race, occupation and other statisticsâ€ (pg.169). The demographic environment is crucial to the success of the business as demography involves people, and people make up markets. The Australian population is mostly concentrated in New South Wales, with 6 926 000 residents, Victoria (5 246 100
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central west pacific region of the world. Many key concepts are approached in this study but, for our purposes we will only be focusing on their demographic patterns and whether the barrier affects their dispersal.
Sicydiinae of three species were sampled across the range studied in various locations. Two main species were studied, the Sicyopus zosterophorum, which is widely distributed across the central west pacific bioregion, the Smilosicyopus fehlmanni, which has nearly the same distribution, and Smilosicyopus chloe, which was included as the control for the study. A tissue sample was taken from each fish and analyzed in various ways. To analyse demography of divergent population dates
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innovation to produce goods which customers want. They develop their products on basis of economics, demography and local factors.
1. explain how economic system attempts to allocate resources effectively:
There are different economic systems and those economic systems are implemented in different countries according to their demand. There are free market economy, centrally planned economy and mixed economy. In free market economy government has fewest or no intervention on supply and demand and decision making. Decisions are made on basis of market mechanism. In free market Condition Company can easily export or import products from other countries. Here government doesn’t take
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designed to recruit usability study participant for website owners. They give the opportunity for anyone capable of meeting some basic criteria to earn money to perform web testing or mobile testing. Currently, testers can earn $10 for web testing and $15 for mobile testing. While it’s typical for companies to provide monetary incentive to test participants, the rates they pay out can vary greatly depending on the demography and suitability of the user profile for the study. According to a report generated by the Nielsen Norman Group, The “average incentive paid to external users was $64 per hour of test time.” (Sova & Nielsen, n.d., p. 6) Typically high-end professionals can earn almost
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Discuss the view that the impact of earthquakes depends primarily on human factors: Earthquakes are caused by movement of tectonic plates that covering the earth’s surface. They occur at all plate boundaries; destructive, constructive and conservative, but the most intense tend to occur at subduction zones and conservative faults, such as the San Andres Fault in California. Every seismic event will be unique, and there are many factors influencing the extent to which it will have an impact on the environment and the populace. In many situations, both physical factors, related to the nature of the event and the topography of the area, and human factors, linked to demography and land use
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The term demography originates from Greek literally translating as ‘people writing’, and, hence refers to the statistical study of human population and its vital statistics: birth, death and migration rates. However, changes in the demographic trends not only involve the study of changes in population size, but also its structure and distribution - as, for example, its age, gender and ethnical distribution. It, therefore, can be equally applied to macro and micro level analysis, where the former is applied to the aggregates of people, groups or societies and the latter – to small groups or families within a community or local area. Periodic counts of the population and its variables are
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. This is achieved via adapting and introducing new lines.Emporio remain a premium biscuit, and thus are tailored to the "white collar" professions, with medium to high income.PsychographThrough changes in the lifestyles of this demography, a new more casual trend of entertaining has emerged, for which purpose this product is been portrayed.BehaviorThe Emporio brand has kept with tradition of providing an image of supreme quality and prestige, however, one, which can be, now enjoyed daily.Marketing StrategiesProductIt is important to identify the product at different levels; at the core the product is a biscuit to be consumed with coffee. This core product is surrounded by another level of
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goods, the distribution of wealth, and the spatial structure of economic conditions.
Population geography is often equated with demography but population geography is more than just patters of birth, death, and marriage. Population geographers are concerned with the distribution, migration, and growth of population in geographic areas.
Geography of Religions
This branch of geography studies the geographic distribution of religious groups, their cultures, and built environments.
Medical geographers study the geographic distribution of disease (including epidemics and pandemics), illness, death and health care.
Recreation, Tourism, and Sport
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the 1960’s, Hoffman and Truandis, both showed that diverse groups were better at solving problems that are cognitively complex and require creative solutions. However, these studies as well as later studies focused on functional and cognitive diversity and did not account for the negative effects of diversity such as conflict that arise when group members perceive the differences within the group (Mannix, 33). Research supporting the “similarity attraction” hypothesis stems from Pfeffer’s influential article “Organizational Demography”. These studies have shown that diversity in organizational tenure has a clear negative effect on group performance, but social-category diversity such as age
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. According to information of Center for disease Control 2002 the percentage of school-age children 6-11 years that are overweight more than doubled between the late 1970s and 2000. Also reported released by Trust for America's Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation is more than one-third of children between ages 10-17 are considered obese (16.4 percent) or overweight (an additional 18.2 percent). Moreover, it will help increase student attendance, decrease visiting to school nurses.
The way to improve nutritious and healthy food is first, assessment of Breakfast and Lunch needs, you need to know your demography of your school and break it down to group, second define diet needs on each
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necessary to manage the increasing diversity in the workforce. The Diversity relates to team functions must have teams that trust each other and with the leaders. Delegation of the leader to a diverse organization ensures that the group will work together and not against each other. Demographic variables are important to consider in respecting and dealing with the wishes or fears of people of diverse genders, ethnic upbringings, and ages. Demography is not a good gauge in seeking good specific jobs. Fairly, ability, character, and attitudes stand what amounts. A diverse team needs to find remains inspired potential by paying attention to its differences and building on them for better delegation and
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Principles of Environmental Science
June 30, 2011
Principles of Environmental Science
Environmental Science is a multidisciplinary field that combines information from many different punitive areas of study, such as biology, geography, chemistry, geology, physics, economics, sociology (mostly demography or the study of populations), cultural anthropology, natural resources, management, agriculture, engineering, law, politics, and ethics. Environmental science and nature’s environmental problems we faces are generally complex and are not as simple as the meaning portrays. The goals of environmental scientists are to try to form basic
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Chiefdom: a type of complex society of varying degrees of centralization that is led by an individual known as a chief.
City-State: a state consisting of a sovereign city.
Civilization: the most advanced stage of human social development and organization.
Commercial: concerned with or engaged in commerce.
Demography: the study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, or the incidence of disease, which illustrate the changing structure of human population.
Divination: the practice of seeking knowledge of the future of the unknown by supernatural needs.
Dynasty: a line of hereditary rulers of a country.
Empire: an extensive group of states or countries under a
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cross-cultural concerns. Cultural differences on the other hand are significant for studying HRM practices and policies within a comparative context. It has been argued that the concept of HRM is supported largely in the U.S. but is not practiced or espoused anywhere else within Europe along with the transition economies.
Rising workplace diversity results in greater challenges for both the interviewees and interviewers. Changes in the nature of workforce demography might result in changing beliefs, attitudes and values of individuals bringing about significant ramifications for the significance lay on particular work aspects. Varying personal attributes exert varying influences on work
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the basis of grography, then once you are catering to a particular territory, you can immediately expand to a nearby territory. In the same way, if you are targeting customers based on their demography (Ex – reebok targets fitness enthusiasts) then you can expand in similar products (Ex – reebok expanding with its fitness range of clothes and accessories). Segmentation plays a crucial role in expansion. You cannot expand in a territory when you have no idea of which segment of customers you will be meeting.
1. Substantial – The segment should be sizeable enough to make the firm profitable.
2. Measurable – The segment should be such that all its measurable characteristics like market
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Running head: ENVIROMENTAL SCIENCE
July 14, 2012
When I hear Environmental Science I think of how science plays a role in the environment but the proper definition is Environmental Science is an interdisciplinary field that combines information from many disciplines, such as biology, geography, chemistry, geology, physics, economics, sociology (particularly demography, the study of populations), cultural anthropology, natural resource management, agriculture, engineering, law, politics, and ethics Berg and Hager (2009). Environmental Science is all about understanding the environment, how it works and
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, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Harrison, R. J., & Carroll, G. R. (2005). Culture and demography in organizations. Princeton University Press. Retrieved from http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/s8183.pdf
Slater, S. F., Olson, E. M., & Finnegan, C. (2011). Business strategy, marketing organization culture, and performance. Marketing Letters, 22(3), 227-242. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11002-010-9122-1
Sun, S. (2008). Organizational culture and its themes. International Journal of Business and Management, 3(12), P137.
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Supervalu could have, as well as, what they could use the data for.
Data that Supervalu could have:
Point of Sale data
Supervalu can use all of their quality transactional data by transforming them into useful information to better serve their customers and increase profitability.
● Point of Sale data allows Supervalu to track the produces and gain control of the amount of inventories. After the data is turned in to quality information, it can limit spoilage and needs for cost reductions. (Baltzan, 2012)
● Customer data can be used to determine the local demography, and the characteristics and
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Summary of case study
Pest = opportunity and threat
The social environment deals with the demography (baby boomer, ages 45 t0 65) and the consumers trend and this is an opportunity to the industry.
Economic environment deals with the influence of the economy on the industry “people within the ages 54-65 generally earned higher income, and has higher level of home ownership”
Bargaining power of suppliers: in this case the power of supplier is low. “as it is common for retailers to change suppliers frequently if their product were not selling well”
Bargaining power of buyers: the wholesale buyers in this industry i.e as Walmart, Canadian tire etc. have a lot of power in this