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VET 140 Mr. Bell |
A prion is a protein that has been mutated. Prion means proteinaceous infectious particle. Proteinaceous infectious particle can be broken down into:” proteinaceous which is relating to, resembling, or being protein, Infectious which is capable of causing infection, and particle which is a minute quantity or fragment” (Merriam – Webster 2012). So a proteinaceous infectious partial would be a very small protein that can cause an infection. The protein called PrP can be found in nerve cells all through the brain. The prion does not have a nucleus like other infectious dieses, and this makes it rare. Without the
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Bram Stoker’s Dracula is a novel focused on vampirism during Victorian time. Vampirism is a curse that awakens the dead as blood sucking monsters, however, it is also a metaphor or a symbol for disease. Vampirism can correlate with animal related illness such as rabies and bubonic plague seen in Dracula’s transformations. Although associating with animal related disease vampirism can also be associated with venereal disease such as syphilis shown in Dracula through the infection of Lucy and Mina. Vampirism rate of infection is closely related to the infectious theory.
Bram Stoker’s Dracula is riddled with text that supports disease. “As the count leaned over me and his hands touched me
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The Effects of Zoonotic Diseases
Case Study #13
April 17, 2011
Zoonosis refers to an infectious disease in animals that can be transmitted to people. An animal serves as the natural reservoir for such an infectious agent, ("MedTerms," 2001). Many zoonoses, which is simply the plural meaning of zoonosis, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites can be transmitted to humans by various routes. Some of these routes consist of animal bites, vectors (i.e., insects), and animal-to-human contact (i.e., inhalation of respiratory droplets or skin-to-skin contact), (Bauman 613-14) & ("Infectious Diseases," 2009). Most emerging infections that have occurred
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The invention of the vaccinations has been one of the greatest health interventions, saving millions of people from infectious diseases (Ehreth, 2002). The vaccine program has had extraordinary success in decreasing the spread of preventable diseases (Zimmerman, 2000). Research shows vaccines are safe, provide a way to protect your child and society, and help avoid wide spread disease.
Vaccines are not completely 100% safe, but it is safer than the infectious disease it is preventing (Concerns about vaccine safety, 2009). With any drugs, there are side effects, but serious ones are rare (Concerns about vaccine safety, 2009). Children are given vaccines at an early age when
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fever. Pest houses functioned mainly in seaport areas to prevent disease from entering the large cities. Contagious-disease and tuberculosis hospitals were to become the next means of infection control, and are the predecessors of the modern quarantine and isolation practices used today.
Quarantine and Isolation are the most common public health strategies used to protect the general public by reducing and preventing the exposure, and spread of deadly, or infectious agents. Medical quarantine and isolation safeguards and prevention practices of today have evolved into strategic operations that are well planned, well designed, with a defined organizational structure that strives to meet the
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Nutrition Final Exam Study Guide
By hanxlee | April 2014
Page 1 of 7
Final Exam Review
NUTR 295 – Fall 2013
NEW MATERIAL: 100 points (~50 questions)
Understanding Disease Risk Factors
Describe the differences between a chronic disease and infectious disease. What leading causes of death are nutrition-related?
A) heart diseases, cancers, strokes, diabetes
Describe the concept of a risk factor.
A) Factors known to be related to diseases, but have not yet proven to be a cause. We say that a certain factor puts us at increased
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Professor Alison Timmons
May 12, 2015
Research Argument Outline
Attention Grabber- little story or startling fact/statistic
Over one million infants and young children die each year from pneumococcal disease and rotavirus diarrhoea (World Health Organization).
Introduction and thesis (claim with ‘should/should not,” “because,” reasons 1,2,3)
The main purpose of a vaccine is to prevent children from getting an infectious disease that can lead to death. With the correct information provided to
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undertaking disease prevention can be understood by an awareness of the epidemiological triangle (see Figure 29.1).
An agent may be thought of as a substance that must be present for a disease or condition to occur. Transmission of an agent to a host may be accomplished in a variety of ways: infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses and parasites by contact; chemical agents such as toxic chemicals or pesticides may be inhaled, or absorbed through the skin; poisons may be ingested.
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of action based the resources available and the need of the population.
The National Foundation for Infectious Disease is a non-profit organization that was founded in 1973 for the purpose of educating the public and health care professionals about the causes, prevention and treatment of infectious diseases across the lifespan. The foundation is based in Bethesda, Maryland. More information can be found at www.nfid.org/info.
Chickenpox the Disease and Vaccine Fact Sheet. (n.d.). Retrieved November 22, 2015, from http://www.nvic.org/vaccines-and-diseases/Chickenpox/chickenpoxfacts.aspx
Chickenpox (Varicella). (n.d.). Retrieved November 22, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov
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Associate Level Material
Name Sci/162 Week 7 Foodborne Illness Date [pic]Hepatitis A ? What is the infectious agent (pathogen) that causes this infectious disease? For example, the name of the bacteria, virus, or parasite.[pic] There are several types of Hepatitis. Infectious hepatitis, which is commonly referred to as Hepatitis A, infects the liver via the virus of the same name. This is commonly spread through contamination from feces. The virus is transmitted among people through direct contact with an infected person and from improper hygiene. For example, if a kitchen worker uses the restroom and does not properly wash their hands and goes directly back to preparing food the virus
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Tuberculosis, also known as TB, has been with us for as long as we can remember. In the first half of the 20th century, it was generally called “consumption,” an often fatal illness. At that time, when infectious diseases were responsible for the majority of deaths, tuberculosis was a leading cause of death. As special hospitals, called sanatoriums, were used to control the spread of TB along with better nutrition, housing, sanitation and the introduction of antibiotics in the middle of the 20th century, TB and other infectious diseases became curable and less rampant. Tuberculosis is an airborne infectious disease caused by
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compliance with infection control policies relevant to the practice setting.
Application of professional judgment Nurses exercise professional judgment relevant to each client situation and infection prevention and control practices.
The nurse meets the standard by: assessing situations for potential or actual infectious disease transmission; selecting and using the appropriate prevention measures when micro-organisms are likely to come into contact with the nurse’s skin, mucous membranes or clothing; modifying her/his practice appropriately when there is a risk of transmitting a disease to clients or other health care providers;
■ ■ ■
selecting, in collaboration with
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even knows he is infected, it is a highly communicable disease. Those with active immunization, having received the vaccination, were less likely to contract the disease.
Crowded rooms, classrooms, public places, play yards, amusement parks, and churches are all excellent places where the infectious agent is easily transferred to a new host. This communicable disease is called a horizontal transmission because it is transferred from one person to another. It not contagious to animals. In states with temperate weather the virus spreads in late winter and early spring.
Measles occurs worldwide and the only control is vaccination against the disease. Children need two
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that epidemiologists would use for health management and clinical purposes. It helps to classify and monitor the incidence and prevalence of diseases and other health problems. These health problems may be recorded on different health and vital records such as health records and death certificates.
Diseases can be classified with their similar causes such as Infectious disease, Environmental disease and Degenerative diseases. Having diseases associated with their cause makes it easier to decide the reason a disease has developed and how it has developed. When causes are associated with diseases you are able to determine what other diseases can develop in order to prevent them. This
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, 2004). Bacterial diseases such as anthrax, cholera, chlamydia and peptic ulcer diseases give an account of the second class of microbial diseases. Fungal diseases such as athlete’s foot and Dutch elm disease form the third class whereas protozoan diseases occupy the fourth place in the division and consist of diseases such as malaria, giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis.
According to the World Health Organization (2004) an epidemic refers to a rapid spread of infectious diseases to affect large numbers of people in a given location. For example, the spread of meningococcal infection. Endemic diseases are infections with the ability to remain constant in a given region without the need for
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the education and care service. This will include sweeping and mopping floors after meal and activity times, wiping tables with soapy water before and after meals, sanitizing toys and equipment after use; and particularly after children have mouthed toys. The sandpits will be raked daily, covered each night and the sand cleaned frequently.
USE APPROPIATE CLEANING AGENTS:
Use a particular disinfectant. Even though disinfectant works effectively there
Still needs to be thorough cleaning using a detergent beforehand.
There is no ideal disinfectant. Disinfectants cannot kill germs if the surface isn’t clean.
Ensure that in the event of an infectious disease being identified within
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Why do poor countries have a predominance of infectious diseases as opposed to the lifestyle-related diseases of wealthy countries? What is your response to the global health inequalities that exist?
When we think sociologically we make links between our own personal experiences and public issues. The sociological imagination template helps to investigate public issues in a way that analyses four important factors, these being; historical, cultural, structural and critical.
Historical factors take into consideration how the past affects the future and for many poor countries a complicated and unstable past has influenced the countries ability to develop. The
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Elephantiasis is a condition characterized by gross enlargement of an area of the body, especially the limbs and occasionally the external genitals. Elephantiasis is caused by obstruction of the lymphatic system, which results in the accumulation of a fluid called lymph in the affected areas. Elephantiasis is also known as Lymphatic Filariasis. In areas where Filariasis (infectious, tropical disease caused by roundworms) is epidemic, Elephantiasis is most common.
The Lymphatic System is a network of tissues and organs that help rid the body of toxins, waste and other unwatend materials. The primary function of the Lymphatic System is to transport lymph, a fluid containing infection
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, particularly in an area where tularemia is common. 0.1 ml Live attenuated vaccine dose via scarification
Treatment: Streptomycin, Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Fluoroquinolone and chloramphenicol (as last resort)
Epidemiology: Peak onset is summer and fall, Endemic areas in United States (>50% of cases) Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma
Status: Endemic across northern hemisphere.
Type of Infectious Disease: contagious
1990--2000, total of 1,368 tularemia cases reported to CDC from 44 states, average 124 cases (range: 86--193) per year; 807 cases (59%) reported as confirmed, 85 cases (6%) were reported as probable.
Mortality: significant if untreated
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health benefits to both mother and baby. The advantages include: health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic, and environmental benefits. Breastfeeding is not just a process that a mother has to go through. It is the first relationship an infant will encounter.
Breastfeeding is highly nutritional, protects from various infectious diseases, decreases rates of sudden infant death syndrome, reduction in insulin dependent (type 1) and non-insulin-dependent (type 2 diabetes mellitus), lymphoma, leukemia, and Hodgkin disease, overweight, and obesity.
According to the Center Disease Control and Prevention breastfeeding is not
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education levels increase the risk of acquiring the HIV infection. Regardless of the socioeconomic status or education level of a community, spreading the knowledge on the prevention methods to take to decrease the risk of HIV transmission, providing the tools such as condoms, and the resources necessary to know how to prevent transmission will decrease the risk level of this population (Dean & Fenton, 2010).
When it comes to communicable diseases such as HIV, the transmission is an important factor to focus on. Preventing the transmission of this disease begins with the knowledge of the specific chain of infection. This includes the infectious agent, the host, and the environment. These
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problem because this is a disease that would spread amongst other, with this in mind it would create an impact with problems in the country with the population being ill and creating a spreading in disease killing or making people suffering which would lower the population rapidly, resulting in a low population that would need populating to a higher amount however not with these disease happening. Another reason is the spreading of the TB disease this is also another disease that would harm the population and with an overpopulating country there just wouldn’t be enough resources to help these people so more will become infected or at least suffering and infectious. Finally, the last reason would
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leading cause of death among Hispanics, accounting for 22% of deaths. While Hispanics are less likely than non-Hispanic whites to be diagnosed with the most common cancers (lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate), they have a higher risk for cancers associated with infectious agents, such as liver, stomach, and cervix. (2015, American Cancer Society) The other leading cause of death for Hispanics is Heart Disease with a direct link to hypertension. Some forms of hypertension can be controlled by lifestyle choices and health behavior practices.
“Hispanics are more likely to delay care, drop out of treatment when symptoms disappear and avoid visits to the doctor,” Dr. Daviglus said. Barriers to
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food, clothing, and shelter on their own (“AIDS Children in Africa”). Although there are many different organizations and institutions attempting to help these children and trying to fulfill their basic needs, there are many more children in Africa who have become orphans and are suffering from poverty than there are organizations to help them.
Dr. Philip A. Pizzo, chief of the Pediatric Branch and head of the Infectious Disease Section of the National Cancer Institute, explains in his article the main reasons behind the increase of HIV in children:
At least two factors account for the account for the emerging impact of HIV as a serious disease among children. First, the criteria
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supplementation for > 28 days should receive RSV prophylaxis. All preterm infants with chronic lung disease going home with supplemental oxygen should receive RSV prophylaxis. Healthy preterm infants without lung disease born after 29 weeks gestation do not meet criteria and should not receive RSV prophylaxis. A critical component of RSV prevention for all infants is family education in decreasing exposure and the transmission of RSV. It is our job as medical professionals to identify unhealthy lifestyles, educate families, and involve services to support them as they make changes towards healthy living. .
America Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases and
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contrast the health effects of smoking cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. Also discuss why they are not all the same in terms of health risks.
Cigarette smoking increases the risk for heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer. According the CDC, it can also cause cancer almost anywhere in your body, including bladder, blood, cervix, colon and rectum, esophagus, kidney and ureter, larynx, liver, oropharynx, pancreas, stomach, and trachea, bronchus, and lung ( www.cdc.gov). Smoking can also affect women who are pregnant or wish to become pregnant. Smoking can make it harder for a woman to become pregnant, and if a pregnant woman smokes, she is at risk for premature delivery
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agents and sewage. Disease causing agents are caused by the waste of infected people penetrating the water supply. A few examples of this are viruses, bacteria, parasitic worms and protozoa. The impact of this pollution is the spreading of infectious diseases. Inadequate water quality can have an extreme negative effect on human beings. Downstream populaces are exposed to water pollution from upstream action. The increased use of wastewater and highly polluted surface water for
agricultural production makes humans highly susceptible to numerous microbial threats from the food chain. In addition to the direct human pain related to ill-health, it also has an increased socio-economic
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cells are white blood cells. There are two types of white blood cells – lymphocytes and phagocytes. When people are stressed, the immune system’s ability to fight off antigens is reduced. That is why we are more prone to infectious disease. The stress hormone corticosteroid can suppress the effectiveness of the immune system (lowers the number of lymphocytes). Stress can also have an indirect effect on the immune system as a person may use unhealthy behavioural coping strategies to reduce their stress, such as drinking and smoking which further inhibit the immune system.
There has been a lot of research into the relationship between stress and the immune system. One group of psychologists
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and teaching. The advent of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has brought many opportunities and challenges in the provision of information services in the health sector worldwide.
The current health situation of many developing countries is a dire one, with many facing double and triple burden of disease (ie infectious and chronic) one contributor to this condition is the HIV/AIDS epidemic. HIV/AIDS has the highest prevalence in developing countries, about 68% (22.5 million) of the approximately 33 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) reside in sub-Saharan Africa where as HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death(UNAIDS & WHO,2007). In Kenya the number living with
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, there are endless examples wherein a bacterial surface component plays an indispensable role in the pathogenesis of infectious disease. Bacterial structures may act as permeability barriers that allow selective passage of nutrients and exclusion of harmful substances; adhesions used to attach or adhere to specific surfaces or tissues; enzymes to mediate specific reactions on the cell surface important in the survival of the organism; protective structures against phagocytic engulfment or killing; antigenic disguises to bypass activation oh host immune defenses; endotoxins, generally cell wall components, that cause an inflammatory response in the host; “sensing proteins” that can respond to
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immunization for no or little prize, give information on local food establishments, information on common health topics and concerns. State level public health is concerned more on organizational level in providing and protecting the health of its public for example; Children’s defense fund advocacy, which promotes health of the younger population, and Center for Medicaid and Medicare that provides care for older population, resources for the poor and disabled (Stateline, n.d.).
The predecessor of public health services was established in 1798 where care for merchant seamen was created. In 1878 Quarantine Act was passed where individuals with infectious illness could move away from general public
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the flu shot is a good choice for them.
The influenza virus (the flu) is an acute, infectious, respiratory disease that’s caused by an orthmyxovirus, and consists of three main strains of the virus: A, B, and C, with two types of A and one of B being the cause of most of the accounted for flu. It infects the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, where the effected cells die in part from the direct effects of the virus, and also because of the body’s interferon system, which may play a role in decreasing the production of the virus (Hunt, 2010, recovery, p 1). Outbreaks usually occur in colder climates, and is spread by person to person contact, fomites, or aerosol
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The Global AIDS crisis and Health Care in the Developing World
The global epidemic of HIV/AIDS is rapidly becoming the worst infectious-disease catastrophe in recorded history, surpassing the bubonic plague of the fourteenth century and the influenza epidemic of 1917, each of which killed some 20 million people. (1) The HIV/AIDS epidemic, first identified in 1981, remains among the greatest threats to global health. (2) AIDS has an unprecedented impact on the economy and society because it kills so many adults in the prime of their working lives; it decimates the workforce, impoverishes families, and shreds communities. To summarize, in the worst
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the virus and try to also slow down the instance of it turning to full blown AIDS, and at this point also trying to Prevent complications, limit disability, and reverse communicability of infectious disease.
Tertiary prevention focuses on when patients already have AIDS, and other diseases and issues that come along with the disease, and managing the syndrome as best as we can, as possibly offer different types of therapy. As well as making sure that the patients are taking all their medications as prescribed to decrease the negative effects of the disease process, as well as restore some previous function and prevent more complications on top of the ones that the patients already have
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This is a case of a 74 year old woman who was diagnosed with Community Acquired Pneumonia.
Pneumonia is an inflammation or infection of the lungs most commonly caused by a bacteria or virus. Pneumonia can also be caused by inhaling vomit or other foreign substances. In all cases, the lungs' air sacs fill with pus , mucous, and other liquids and cannot function properly. This means oxygen cannot reach the blood and the cells of the body.
Most pneumonias are caused by bacterial infections.The most common infectious cause of pneumonia in the United States is the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacterial pneumonia can attack anyone. The most common cause of bacterial
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to help educate the public about appropriate food safety.
The public (consumers, food service workers) needs to be aware of where our food comes from and how the food is processed and handled. More important, we need to be sure those animals from which are food is made are being raised in clean, safe living conditions. In addition, people should buy food with proper packaging and labels (brand names, trademarks), together with place of origin and quality.
To start, we live in an infectious world, and present are many chances for food to become tainted as it is produced and prepared. Food-borne illnesses are results from consuming foods or beverages, which have been contaminated with
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CLASS I: Double-stranded DNA
- OPV are enveloped brick-shaped viruses (350 × 270 nm) containing a double-stranded DNA genome with a size of approximately 200 kb, the ends of which are connected by covalent links
- the different OPV species cannot be distinguished by means of electron microscopy
- OPV are closely related to each other with regard to antigens and show marked homology at the genome level
- The genome of the poxviruses encodes for 150–200 different genes
- Unlike other DNA viruses, poxviruses replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells in so-called virus factories (Guarnieri inclusion bodies)
- Originally, four different infectious virus particles were
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kinds of tortures in order to research. Millions of helpless animals are
being killed each year. According to Humane Society International, there
is a long list of testing procedures that animals can be exposed to in
scientific or commercial testing. “Some of them are forced chemical
exposure, oral forcefeeding, forced inhalation, exposure to drugs,
chemicals or infectious disease, tailclipping, food and water deprivation,
infliction of wounds, burns and other injuries to study healing and even
killing by neckbreaking and decapitation” (“Chemical” par. 4). Some of
these testings are extremely cruel and require thousands of animals to
suffer. According to
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Cancer is the leading cause of deaths in United States (CDC, 2012) even though there are significant improvements and increased treatment options available in today’s world. There are over a million new cases reported each year. Around 1,500 deaths reported each day due to cancer (CDC, 2012). Cancer is considered a group of disease that is described as uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. The result of uncontrolled growth of these abnormal cell leads to a death of a person. There are several contributing factors that fall into two broader categories such as External and Internal. External are related to tobacco, chemicals, radiations and infectious organism where internal
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More people are using alternative medicine, using alternative medicine takes the body longer to heal than conventional medicine, alternative medicine is used more today building our immune system using natural remedies. Without the use of expensive prescription drugs we can heal, repair, and restore our body. Every day our body encounters challenges with these challenges society needs to keep in mind that the immune system needs to stay strong. Alternative medicine uses natural remedies many use, herbal medicine to fight against infectious diseases killing germs and viruses they strengthening the immune system. People have been using herbal medicine since the dawn of time.
Many people are
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21.3 (2008):626-631. Print
Miller, Lisa, MSPH and Joni Reynolds. “Autism and Vaccination—The Current Evidence.” Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing 14.3 July 2009:166-172. Print
Obomsawin, Raymond. "Immunization Graphs: Natural Infectious Disease Declines; Immunization Effectiveness; and Immunization Dangers." VaxTruthorg VaxTruth Inc, (2011) Web. 17 Sept. 2014.
"Quick Compare." Vaccinationcouncil.org. International Medical Council on Vaccination, (2010) Web. 29 Sept. 2014.
Rosenthal, Elisabeth. "The Price of Prevention: Vaccine Costs Are Soaring." The New York Times. The New York Times, (2014) Web. 1 Oct. 2014.
"Vaccines." What Is a Vaccine. National Institutes of Health, (2008) Web. 7 Oct. 2014.
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. (2016). Retrieved from http://public.health.oregon.gov/DiseasesConditions/CommunicableDisease/DiseaseSurveillanceData/Influenza/Pages/about_influ_surveil.aspx
Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) & Flu Vaccine. (2014). Retrieved from www.cdc.gov
Langford, C. (2002). The age pattern of mortality in the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic. Medical History, 46(), . http://dx.doi.org/Retrieved from
Lozano, R. (2012, 15 December). Global and regional mortality from 235 cases of death for 20 age groups. Lancet, 380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0
Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations o the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. (2001). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly, 50(), 1-49.
Whitley, R., & Monto, A. (2006). Prevention and treatment of influenza in high-risk groups: children, pregnant women, immunocompromised hosts and nursing home residents. Journal of Infectious Disease, 194(S2:S133-8). http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/507548
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the first half of the 20th century, the UK’s infant mortality rate began to fall; this was due to many reasons. There was improved housing and better sanitation, such as flush toilets and clean drinking water, reduced infectious disease. There is better nutrition, including that of mothers and there is a better knowledge of hygiene, child health and welfare, often spread via women’s magazines.
Children have become an economic liability; this is because in the 19th century children could be sent out to work at an early age to earn income. However recently they have gradually become an economic liability. There are laws banning child labour, and alternatively have introduced compulsory
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infectious disease.” Accordingly, those who share Reed’s view of global warming believe that the world’s governments must take immediate action to limit greenhouse gas emissions.
In response to these pressures, a growing band of skeptical scientists are questioning the validity of the global warming theory. According to these critics, the IPCC bases its predictions for rising global temperatures on faulty computer climate models, which exaggerate the climate’s response to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases while failing to accurately reproduce the motions of the atmosphere. Explains Richard L. Lindzen, a professor of meteorology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, “Present
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prevents the autonomy of patient (Nathanson, 2000). Who would volunteer the info when he or she sees it is against to self by revealing them? Confidentiality violations could be potentially disastrous.
Nonetheless, there are certain occasions as an exception in which it may be necessary to breach confidentiality without patients’ consent and act against their trust. Those occasions are when higher obligations are threatened by keeping the confidentiality. In this case, the breach typically protects patients or their parties from harm. Reporting of child abuse, certain infectious disease, and potential violence would be the latter case to protect the public’s good. Furthermore, this
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against infectious disease - the Green book [Online]. Available at: http://immunisation.dh.gov.uk/gb-complete-current-edition/ (Accessed: 10 January 2013).
GB: Department of Health (2009a) Healthy lives, brighter futures: the strategy for children and young people's health [Online]. Available at: https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/285376a.pdf (Accessed: 10 January 2013).
GB: Department of Health (2009b) Securing better health for children and young people through world class commissioning: a guide to support delivery of healthy lives, brighter futures – the strategy for children and young people's health [Online]. Available at: https://www.education.gov.uk
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Have you ever been refused a visa for China, or been refused entry into China?
Do you have any criminal record in China or any other country?
4.6 是否患有以下任一种疾病 Are you affiliated with any of the following diseases?
① 严重精神疾病 Serious mental disorder
② 传染性肺结核病 Infectious pulmonary tuberculosis
③ 可能对公共卫生造成危害的其他传染病 Other infectious disease of public health hazards
4.7 近 30 日内是否前往过流行性疾病传染的国家或地区？
Did you visit countries or territories infected by infectious diseases in the last 30 days?
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4.8 如果对 4.3 到 4.7 的任何一个问
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is completely changing our microbial world. In our efforts to distance ourselves from disease-causing infectious agents, we have probably also changed our associations with beneficial organisms. (Ackerman, 2012) More and more we are isolating ourselves from exposure to both good and bad bacteria through our increased attention to “germ control” and some suggest that this is just making us sicker. We have co-evolved with our microbiome and our immune system has depended on the constant intervention of beneficial bacteria.
Researchers are looking at the affect microorganisms have on our immune system and challenging the understanding of how the immune system distinguishes our own cells
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progressed recently and found that embryonic stem cells were not the most successful and productive in comparison to adult stem cells, that hold more secrets to be unlocked and more uses. These cells have been proven to have therapeutic benefits, ability to help people with infectious diseases and terminal illnesses and will not be rejected by the body’s defenses. Adult stem cells, not embryonic cells, are the next best form of medicine we have to use to date thanks to much research.
Only time can tell where adult stem cells can take us. Adult stem cells can heal the body from ailments with time and apparently, with use of these cells they do the work in enough time. ”In the United States