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GROWTH OF BACTERIA
Is there a difference in germ killing when using antibacterial soap or hand sanitizer? When using hand sanitizer or antibacterial soap one is more likely to have a lower bacteria count than the other. Other factors contribute to the less bacteria count like the amount of time one washes their hands and the amount of soap one uses. If two groups were to wash their hands one with hand sanitizer and the other with antibacterial soap then the group who washed their hands with hand sanitizer should have a lower bacteria count.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In the laboratory located at Chaffey College, two groups were formed to prove that the hypothesis was correct
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A. Compare your observations from the four activities of fresh wet mount, direct staining
using crystal violet, and indirect staining using both Congo Red and crystal violet.
The fresh wet mount slides, as the name suggests, is bathed in some form of liquid, whether it is water or some kind of liquid that the organism itself came from. The microscopic images produced are clear or somewhat colorless, but the edges are distinct and we can see the shapes of the bacteria very well.
Direct staining using crystal violet produces bluish or purplish colored bacteria and the shapes are well distinguished also
Indirect staining using Congo Red is like the negative film version of direct
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Diagnosis of an Infected Patient
Infection is the invasion and growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites that are not normally present within the body. A prokaryotic cell is a simple cell that does not have a nucleus. One of the most common types of prokaryotic cells is a bacterium. Bacteria are differentiated by many factors including shape, chemical composition, nutritional requirements, biochemical activities, and sources of energy (Tortora 76). A patient with an infection in the upper respiratory system will need to have a sputum sample sent to the lab for further evaluation to determine the cause in order to accurately treat the infection. While many
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Bacteria are among the first life forms present on Earth, and they can be found in almost every environment. They can be in the shape of rods, spirals, and spheres. The genera Bacillus is a rod shaped bacterium that often form chains and can be found in a wide range of habitats. [Tortora, G.] Bacillus can be endospore-forming aerobic or facultatively anaerobic. Their thick peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall encases their cell membrane, making them a gram-positive bacteria. The fact that Bacillus produce endospores makes them resistant to heat, cold, radiation, desiccation, and disinfectants.[Turnbull, P] This genera of bacterium are generally found in soil and water. The largest of this
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6) 5 x 10^-3mm and 5.0microns
7) 1.96 x 10^-3 or 1.96microns
8) 4.9x10^-4mm o 0.49 micron
9) 9.8 x 10^-4mm or 0.98micron
10) 9.8 x 10^-5mm or 0.098micron
11) 9.8 x 10^-5mm or 0.098micron
12) 0.24micron or 2.4 x 10^-4mm
13) 0.005microns or 5x10^-6mm
14) The amoeba is eukaryotic while the bacteria cell is prokaryotic. You can tell this by simply observing that the bacteria cell has no nucleus while the amoeba has a nucleus.
15) Length = 4.9x10-2mm or 0.049microns
Width= 1.8x 10^ -3mm or 0.018microns
16) The elodea cells look shrunken in the salt solution. The cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall and are
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starting in the 1930’s. It has since been removed from vaccines for children under the age of 6 except from the vaccine of inactivated influenza because of the concern of mercury. Infants seem to lack the ability to remove mercury from their bodies. In turn it was removed just as a precautionary move based on concerns of possible links to Thimosal causing Autism. The use of preservatives in vaccines is to kill the bacteria in the vaccines just in case the vaccine is contaminated. If the vaccine was to be contaminated the bacteria would be fatal. (Vaccine...
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American Accreditation Healthcare commission, taking care of your teeth helps prevent plaque, which is a clear film of bacteria that sticks to your teeth within 20 minutes after eating.
IV. In the Harvard Health Letter it is stated that tooth brushing may be the most ingrained of all other health habits but unfortunately, just because most of us brush our teeth at least twice a day, it is more often than not that it is not done incorrectly. The inadequate job leaves behind the bacteria causing plaque that will cause cavities and gum disease.
Transition: let me start by explaining the importance of having an appropriate toothbrush for your oral care.
I. The toothbrush itself
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accounts for nearly 2% of our total body weight. Trillions of bacteria and other microorganisms are thriving on our skin, genital areas, mouth, and especially intestines. (Ackerman, 2012) It is estimated that there are more than one thousand species that make up this community living in the digestive system alone.
When we think of microbes in the body, we tend to think of bacteria that causes disease or germs that make us sick. Biologist, Sarkis K. Mazmanian believes we focused on the harmful bugs because they are foreign enemies that invade our bodies throughout our life and indifferent to seeing them as part of us and allying to learn more about them.
Newborns may begin life as sterile
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Aseptic Technique and Culturing Microbes
Aseptic Technique and Culturing Microbes
The purpose of this lab is to learn and gain knowledge about aseptic techniques to collect and transfer cultures, learning about different culture medias and proper temperature to grow bacteria.
-Incubator made from box, styrofoam pieces wrapped with foil
-Sterile swab stick
A. There is a difference between an Obligate and Faculative Aerobe.
• An Obligative aerobe is an organism that requires oxygen to grow
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Essay: Diagnosis of an Infected Patient
In this essay, you are asked to demonstrate your understanding of the different types of culturing and staining procedures discussed in Chapters 3 and 7. You will have TWO WEEKS to research and compose your essay.
Consider the following scenario:
You are given a sputum sample from a patient that may be infected with bacteria from one of the following genera:
For this essay,
1. Describe the handing of the specimen and how the infectious agent, in this case a bacterial pathogen, is isolated from the sputum sample.
2. Explain techniques used to isolate bacteria from a clinical
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usually live in extreme environments and include methanogens, extreme halophiles, and hyperthermophiles. One reason for this is that the ether-containing linkages in the Archaea membranes are more stable and are able to withstand higher temperatures and stronger acid concentrations. The other two domains of life are Bacteria and Eukarya. Unlike the Bacteria and the Eukarya domains, the Archaea domain has membranes composed of branched hydrocarbon chains that are attached to glycerol by ether linkages. Bacteria and Eukarya domains have membranes composed of unbranched fatty acid chains that are attached to glycerol by ester linkages. Eukarya cell walls contain no peptidoglycan, whereas
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1. Explain why is each of these is often resistant to disinfectants.
Mycobacterium is often resistant to disinfectants because of their waxy outer layer which classifies them as an acid fast bacterium. Mycobacterium are the rod shaped aerobic bacteria.
2. Pseudomonas may be resistant to disinfectants dependent on which surfaces may be disinfected with which product.
3. Bacillus are often resistant to disinfectants as these gram-positive rods have the ability to form an endospore. Endospores can survive environmental changes and usually kill the bacteria. When extreme cases of high temperature, high UV irradiation, desiccation, chemical damage and enzymatic
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. List three reasons why you might choose to stain a particular slide rather than view it as a wet-mount.
1. Provides a reliable means for observing bacteria.
2. Bacteria have almost the same refractive index as water. Straining cells makes them easier to see.
3. Allows bacteria morphology to be visualized easily.
B. Define the following terms:
Chromophore: a group of atoms within a molecule which are responsible for the color of the molecule. Chromophores are found in a wide variety of molecules, and can work in several different ways. Groupings of atoms within a molecule which contribute in some way to its characteristics are also known as moieties or functional groups; a
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‘Outline and evaluate a piece of research that shows a relationship between stress and the immune system’
The immune system is a collection of billions of cells that travel through the bloodstream. They move in and out of tissues and organs, defending the body against foreign bodies (antigens), such as bacteria, viruses and cancerous cells.
There are two types of lymphocytes within the immune system, these are;
B cells- produce antibodies which are released into the fluid surrounding the body’s cells to destroy the invading viruses and bacteria.
T cells- if the invader gets inside a cell, these (T cells) lock on to the infected cell, multiply and destroy it.
The main types of immune
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. The inflated balloon which keeps the catheter in the bladder allows a small amount of urine to remain un-drained. The catheter itself is a direct route of travel for bacteria, on the inside and outside. Bacteria is more likely to become colonized on the outside of the tube from the meatus.
CAUSES OF CAUTI
1. Estimated costs and length of stay attributable to catheter-associated bacteriuria vary greatly. Only a fraction of catheter-associated bacteriuria episodes come to physicians’ attention. The duration of catheterization is the most important cause.
2. female gender, more than 60 years of age
3. Not maintaining a sterile technique during insertion and closed drainage system after
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most clinically important and studied species is the microorganism Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes). Biochemically, E. aerogenes is gram-negative, oxidase negative, catalase positive, citrate positive, indole negative, and rod-shaped bacterium. E. aerogenes does not use oxygen for energy production, thus it thrives in environments with little or no oxygen, such as soil, sewage and feces. In a laboratory setting, E. aerogenes grows well in MacCongey agar (a culture designed to selectively grow gram-negative bacteria and differentiate them from lactose fermentation), which contains, dyes, salts and milk sugar. Its optimal growing temperature ranges from 30 to 37 degrees Celsius
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Salmonella is a bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract system. Salmonella are found in animals as well as human intestines, it comes through the feces. Increase exposure are International travel where developing countries with poor sanitation. Owning a pet bird or reptile is also a risk factor if they are infected with salmonella bacteria. Stomach has a natural defense against salmonella. Some disorders are antacids, inflammatory bowel disease and recent use of antibiotics can shorten the natural defense.
Most people are infected with salmonella by eating foods that are contaminated by feces. The most infected foods are raw meat, poultry, and seafood. When the meat
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Niel Ingle 5-12-15
O.L.M Grade 8
Caused by Vibrio cholerae
Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium vibrio cholera. The infection is often mild or without symptoms, but can sometimes be severe. Approximately 1-10 infected persons will have severe disease characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. In these people, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hours. Cholera is yellow in color.
The bacteria causes’ disease when a person drinks water or eats food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. In
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apparatus in the plasma membrane allowing the cell to swim in fluid environments. Bacterial flagella are powered by proton motive force Established on the bacterial membrane.
Bacteria are known to exhibit a variety of types of tactic behavior. During chemotaxis a bacterium can sense the quality and quantity of certain chemicals in its environment and swim towards them (useful nutrients) or away from them (harmful substances). During aero taxis, bacteria swim toward or away from 02.
For a few pathogens motility is known to be a determinant of virulence. In the case of vibro cholera, the vibrio’s apparently swim into the intestinal mucosa to avoid being flushed out by the peristaltic action of the
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The digestive system consists of a series of connected organs that together, allow the body to break down and absorb food, and remove waste. It includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. The liver and pancreas also play a role in the digestive system because they produce digestive juices.
The endocrine system consists of eight major glands that secrete hormones into the blood. These hormones, in turn, travel to different tissues and regulate various bodily functions, such as metabolism, growth and sexual function.
The immune system is the body's defense against bacteria, viruses and other pathogens that may be harmful. It includes lymph
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Water is fundamental to every human being. The daily requirement for the body is close to twenty to fifty liters of clean safe water (Kemp, 2009). There are many reasons why access to clean water is beneficial to every human being.
Firstly, clean and safe drinking water is good for the health. All living things need water for survival. Water contributes to about seventy percent of the total human body and further plays other functions like digestion and cooling. Contaminated water is risky to the health since bacteria in polluted water cause sickness like cholera. Clean water is also good for maintenance of hygiene
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earth's atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants.
Influence length of seasons, frequent and intense storms, rising sea levels.
The assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by soil bacteria and its release for plant use on the death of the bacteria.
Breakdown of nitrates by anaerobic bacteria into other forms.
Mainly plant and marine species.
Gaseous cycles like carbon, Sedimentary cycles like sulphur
A significant increase in agricultural productivity resulting from the introduction of high-yield varieties of grains, the use of pesticides, and improved management techniques.
Wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal.
The variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem.
Species that do not originate in the area or region from which they are found growing.
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purchase if the temperature is above 90 degrees Fahrenheit. A helpful hint is to check one’s refrigerator or freezer’s thermostat periodically. The temperature of one’s refrigerator should be set at 40 degrees Fahrenheit or lower, and the freeze temperature set at 0 degrees Fahrenheit.
Many American are unaware of how long products such as fish, ground meats, and poultry can remain refrigerated or uncooked before bacteria starts to build. As a consumer, are you aware? The cdc.gov website is to freeze or cook these items within two days of purchase. On the other hand beef, lamb, pork, and veal can remain refrigerated a minimum of three to five days before cooking or freezing.
The best way to
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Associate Level Material
Name Sci/162 Week 7 Foodborne Illness Date [pic]Hepatitis A ? What is the infectious agent (pathogen) that causes this infectious disease? For example, the name of the bacteria, virus, or parasite.[pic] There are several types of Hepatitis. Infectious hepatitis, which is commonly referred to as Hepatitis A, infects the liver via the virus of the same name. This is commonly spread through contamination from feces. The virus is transmitted among people through direct contact with an infected person and from improper hygiene. For example, if a kitchen worker uses the restroom and does not properly wash their hands and goes directly back to preparing food the virus
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. Without checkpoints it may affect cell growth which is very important.
9. The Hershey-Chase experiments by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase helped confirm DNA as genetic material. Using bacteriophages, Hershey and Chase added radioactive elements into the bacteriophages by adding the isotopes. The phage coats remained on the outside of the bacteria, while genetic material entered. Centrifugation allowed for the separation of the phage coats from the bacteria. These bacteria were lysed to release phage progeny. The progeny of the phages that were originally labeled with 32P remained labeled, while the progeny of the phages originally labeled with 35S were unlabeled. Thus, the Hershey
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The Effects of Zoonotic Diseases
Case Study #13
April 17, 2011
Zoonosis refers to an infectious disease in animals that can be transmitted to people. An animal serves as the natural reservoir for such an infectious agent, ("MedTerms," 2001). Many zoonoses, which is simply the plural meaning of zoonosis, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites can be transmitted to humans by various routes. Some of these routes consist of animal bites, vectors (i.e., insects), and animal-to-human contact (i.e., inhalation of respiratory droplets or skin-to-skin contact), (Bauman 613-14) & ("Infectious Diseases," 2009). Most emerging infections that have occurred
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. What most people don’t know is the conditions the animals are living in before they’re killed. Cows are being hung upside, pigs and chickens are cramped in enclosed spaces. “Inside the facility, the animals are beaten once more to be herded into place. In one case, a man is seen punching, kicking and kneeing a pig, then striking it with a steel stunning tong at least 20 times, as the animal screams” (Gutierrez). What can come from those living conditions? Different bacteria that enters our food. “A recent study has revealed that a full 48% of soda fountains at fast food restaurants contain coliform bacteria – which grows in feces. 11% containted E. Coli, too” (Merchant). It’s extremely
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the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis that usually affects the lungs, although other organs and tissues such as the kidney, spine and brain can be affected as well. Fortunately, TB in these parts of the body is usually not infectious. The disease can be spread through the air by coughing, sneezing, or spitting so you have to be careful around people who possibly have it. If you breathe in the bacteria it can settle in your lungs and begin to multiply. The bacteria can be transported through the blood to other parts of the body.
There are quite a few symptoms that can let you know if you could possibly have TB, and they can be very scary as well. Prolonged coughing and this can even
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This is a case of a 74 year old woman who was diagnosed with Community Acquired Pneumonia.
Pneumonia is an inflammation or infection of the lungs most commonly caused by a bacteria or virus. Pneumonia can also be caused by inhaling vomit or other foreign substances. In all cases, the lungs' air sacs fill with pus , mucous, and other liquids and cannot function properly. This means oxygen cannot reach the blood and the cells of the body.
Most pneumonias are caused by bacterial infections.The most common infectious cause of pneumonia in the United States is the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacterial pneumonia can attack anyone. The most common cause of bacterial
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infection of the internal area of the abdomen and possible systemic sepsis. Approximately 15% of those with diverticular disease are symptomatic, and of that group 15% will develop significant complications such as perforation as stated in a paper titled Treatment of Perforated Diverticulitis with Generalized Peritonitis: Past, Present, and Future (Vermeulen, Lange 2010).
BIOLOGICAL MECHANISM: The condition of diverticulosis occurs when small areas of tissue form pouches in the large intestine or colon called diverticulum, or diverticula (plural). Diverticula may occur due to the lack of bulk forming and bacteria producing fiber, resulting in an imbalance of certain intestinal bacteria
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Nurse "Well we are going to have to cleen it out really well. There are all kinds of bad bacteria and organisms in the lake that can make you sick. You are going to have to stay out of that water for a few days and keep it dry with this triple antibiotic ointment on it"
Director "We will have to notify tour parents"
8th grade boy "Ok...thank you and Im sorry"
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water companies not follwing EPA rules and regulations, their water can be more harmful than tap water. For instance, city tap water can contain no E. coli or fecal coliform bacteria, bacteria that serve as indicators of contamination. The FDA follows no such rule and a certain amount of any type of bacteria is allowed in tap water. Bottled water plants must test for coliform bacteria just once a week, as big city tap water must be tested more 100 times a month. City tap water must meet standards for certain important toxic chemicals such as phthalate, which can come from plastic, including water bottles. On the other hand, bottled water is also exempt from follwoing this rule. Also, cities must
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Plants, also called green plants, are multicellular eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form an unranked clade Viridiplantae(Latin for green plants) that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts,mosses and the green algae. Green plants excludes the red and brown algae, the fungi, archaea, bacteria and animals.
Green plants have cell walls with cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability
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7. Tooth Decay. Studies suggests that the chemical antioxidant “catechin” in tea can destroy bacteria and viruses that cause throat infections, dental caries and other dental conditions
8. Blood Pressure. Regular consumption of green tea is thought to reduce the risk of high blood pressure.
9. Depression. Theanine is an amino acid naturally found in tea leaves. It is this substance that is thought to provide a relaxing and tranquilizing effect and be a great benefit to tea drinkers.
10. Anti-viral and Anti-bacterial. Tea catechins are strong antibacterial and antiviral agents which make them effective for treating everything from influenza to cancer. In some studies green tea has been shown to inhibit the spread of many diseases.
11. Skincare. Green tea can apparently also help with wrinkles and the signs of aging, This is because of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Both animal and human studies have demonstrated that green tea applied topically can reduce sun damage.
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In the reading, Johan Goudsblom argues how fire was the first ecological force to be incorporated into the human society, allowing them to expand their population and territories, and facilitate their standard of living. Furthermore, it deserved to be ranked in front of agriculture and the domestication of animals, two factors commonly thought to be the “dawn of civilization.” According to the author fire, despite popular opinions, played a larger role in the early development of the human race, perhaps facilitating the creation of civilization.
The two most basic uses was cooking and warmth. When cooking food in fire, the majority of harmful bacteria are killed in the process, making
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High protein content - for bacteria.
Expt.: To investigate the growth of leaf yeasts.
Sterile techniques used (sterility means live organisms are not present):
Autoclaving, flaming, swabbing with disinfectant and immersion in liquid disinfectant.
Asepsis means taking measures to prevent contamination by m/o (sterilising is an aseptic method)
Leaves collected in a closed sterile box.
Washings yours hands before and after.
Long hair tied back.
Placing base of open agar plate bottom side up.
Making sure that the leaf plate is only opened for a short time, which reduces the chances of contamination from the air.
Sealing the plates so they cannot be opened
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selected and obesity. A new study may make you think twice before adding Splenda to your coffee. There is strong evidence supporting the relationship between Splenda and obesity. Obesity however is not the only serious illness associated with Splenda. It has also been proven that Splenda has a direct link with the destruction of the “good” bacteria in the intestinal tract. The consumption of Splenda contributes to obesity, destroys the “friendly” intestinal bacteria necessary for colon health and the prevention of colon cancers, and inhibits the proper absorption of prescription drugs.
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, increase the duration of breastfeeding, and allow the “good bacteria” from the mother’s skin to infiltrate the newborn, and 3) delay the cord clamping by two to three minutes after birth (or wait until the umbilical cord has stopped pulsing) to increase the baby’s iron reserves, reduce the risk of iron-deficiency anemia and improve blood circulation. These are basically in line with the Essential Newborn Care (ENC) protocol.
When I read about this, I had mixed emotions. On one hand, I got disappointed for I know it was not strictly observed when I gave birth to my 4 children. On the other hand, I felt grateful that an effort is being directed towards its strict implementation. There are
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with ancient mummies bacteria and other molds have been found that can be deadly, many of these molds and bacteria are known to attack the respiratory system. In laboratory studies it has been discovered that many ancient mummies carry two potentially dangerous species of mold known as, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. These molds can cause reactions ranging from congestion to bleeding in the lungs. Lord Carnarvon, who was known to be a sickly man, would have almost been a kiss of death the moment he breathed them in. One doctor of the Cairo University in Egypt did a study and examined the health records of some museum workers and noticed that many of them had been exposed to
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great extent- reducing the amount of phosphorus in the water from 150 parts per billion (ppb) in 1990’s to 30 ppb today. The target of 10 ppb is still far away but the problem of Everglades is not limited to phosphorus, it goes beyond that (William H. Orem, 2009).
There is another way in which these agricultural farms are affecting the marshlands. The agricultural land in the Everglades mostly consists of peat soil. It used to extend up to an area of 3 meters but today it has diminished to one third its size. This happens when farmers drain the peat soil through canals for the better growth of their crops. Once this peat soil is exposed to air it gets oxidized away by aerobic bacteria
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same symptoms and it allowed me to narrow down the possible causes for the illnesses based on what people were doing before getting sick. The next thing I did was take my findings to an expert to see what could cause these symptoms. The expert was able to rule out infection, bacteria, viruses, and point to pollution as the cause for the illnesses. The next thing I did was get a research expert to test many variables of what might have been polluted such as the water, soil, or the plant life. The expert was able to determine that the soil, water, and plant life had all been polluted by gas. I did additional research to find out where the gas was coming from in order to pollute our community
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Antony van Leeuwenhoek was an unlikely scientist. A tradesman of Delft, Holland, he came from a family of tradesmen, had no fortune, received no higher education or university degrees, and knew no languages other than his native Dutch. This would have been enough to exclude him from the scientific community of his time completely. Yet with skill, diligence, an endless curiosity, and an open mind free of the scientific dogma of his day, Leeuwenhoek succeeded in making some of the most important discoveries in the history of biology. It was he who discovered bacteria, free-living and parasitic microscopic protists, sperm cells, blood cells, microscopic nematodes and rotifers, and much more
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undertaking disease prevention can be understood by an awareness of the epidemiological triangle (see Figure 29.1).
An agent may be thought of as a substance that must be present for a disease or condition to occur. Transmission of an agent to a host may be accomplished in a variety of ways: infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses and parasites by contact; chemical agents such as toxic chemicals or pesticides may be inhaled, or absorbed through the skin; poisons may be ingested.
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renovating existing stores. On an average the store size is of 3000 sq ft. Company is planning to open 120 large format retail stores and the cost to set up such stores is between Rs 40 -50 lakh.
Company has exclusive division of Bata India to meet the requirement of various industries viz hospitality, healthcare, aviation, education and government organisation. The division collaborates with corporate customers to design exclusive shoe lines under various national and international brands- HUSH PUPPIES, AMBASSADOR, COMFIT, SCHOLL, NORTH STAR and POWER etc. Company has come up with a patented MICROBAN technology which keeps shoes completely bacteria free.
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variety of different types of fiber. This chart shows the most common types of dietary and functional types and explains where they come from and how they can keep you healthy.
Types of Fiber | Soluble or Insoluble | Sources | Health Benefits |
Cellulose, some hemicellulose | Insoluble | Naturally found in nuts, whole wheat, whole grains, bran, seeds, edible brown rice, skins of produce. | "Nature's laxative": Reduces constipation,lowers risk of diverticulitis, can help with weight loss. |
Inulin oligofructose | Soluble | Extracted from onions and byproducts of sugar production from beets or chicory root. Added to processed foods to boost fiber. | May increase "good" bacteria in
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assortative mating tends to exaggerate differences between groups/populations.
3 Results of Natural Selection. Imagine a population of mice with a range of fur colors. If natural selection favors certain colors over others, there are 3 possible outcomes.
a. Directional selection - Shifts the make-up of a population in favor of one extreme. Example: drug resistant bacteria
b. Disruptive selection - Results in a balance between 2 or more contrasting phenotypes in a population.
c. Stabilizing selection - Favors intermediate phenotypes, getting rid of extremes. Usually prevails – resists changes in a well-adapted population.
2. Genetic drift
If a new generation gets its
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particular kind of nutrient, is rotated with another type of crop which replaces the depleted nutrient. For example, legumes, like beans or peas, have nodules on their roots which contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria. These bacteria help ‘fix’ or change nitrogen into a soluble form. Legumes are therefore often alternated with plants requiring nitrogen, and soy beans can therefore be followed by maize.
Agricultural lime, or crushed limestone, can be used as an alternative fertiliser. Lime increases the pH of soil, making the soil less acidic, and more soluble for nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus compounds. These nutrients will therefore be more readily available for absorption by plants
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When water is being tested for pollution, there are six possible categories in which pollution can be placed in. The first category is calling pathogens. Pathogens are a combination of disease causing bacteria, viruses and protozoa’s which usually come from human sewage. The higher concentration of protozoa’s there are in a water system, the greater the health risk towards wildlife and all who consume it. Some protozoa’s that are common in polluted water systems include: gastroenteritis (which is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract involving the stomach and the small intestine), salmonellosis (an infection that causes diarrhea, fever, vomiting and abdominal cramps) and E