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World Religion Summary Chapter 1 Image

1643 words - 7 pages

Chapter 1: IMAGE
JUDAISM 
God as One
Second commandment (A): “You shall have no other gods before me”
Abraham “Father of monotheism”
Distinctiveness of Israel “Gods of the heathens are nought”
Examples:
 Maimonides 2nd principle (Box 1.1) – “God is one”
 Yigdal hymn (p. 29) – Maimonides put into poetic song, part of Jewish daily prayer book
 Shema (Box 1.2)
– Part of official evening and morning prayers
– Also inscribed in black ink on “kosher” animal skin parchment, placed inside containers:
 Tefillin – strapped to forehead and left arm at weekday morning prayers => Mind, head, heart
 Mezuzah – fixed to doorposts of Jewish homes at eye level => constant reminder of ...view middle of the document...

How is this action relevant to the Islamic concept of God? What is the shahadah? How is it related to tawhid ?
Monotheism – “Tawhid” - Muhammad’s destruction of multiplicity of statues in Ka’bah reflects the Islam’s belief in the oneness and uniqueness of God
Example:
 Reflected in Shahabad – first of the Five Pillars of Islam: “I bear witness that there is no god but God; I bear witness that Muhammad is His prophet.”
– part of Muslim’s daily prayers
– when converting Islam, need to speak Shahadah with clear-minded intention before 2 witnesses => embracing the concept of tawhid is key to joining the Muslim religious community
 tawhid is also an recurring them of Islam’s holiest book – Qur’an
Aniconism – Allah is beyond all images.
 Only object toward which the congregation faces during prayers in a mosque is mihrab – designed in shape of doorway or an arch but does not lead to any room, it indicates the qibla – the direction of Mecca
 As in Jewish synagogue, mosque is only decorated with geometric forms, floral designs, and calligraphic patterns (verses of Qur’an)
Shirk
 Shirk = idolatry, literally meaning “making a partner or an equal” – to Allahm, polytheism = deny the principle of God’s uniqueness and unity => gravest sin in Islam
 Examples of Shirk: Muslim pilgrims display excessive devotion at the graves of saints, including Muhammad’s tomb in Medina

Are the “99 names of God” a form of shirk?
 No, reflects the richness in God, speaks of 99 divine “names” – a litany of qualities, recited in private meditation and beads are turned
CHRISTIANITY 
God as One and Three
God is One
 Jewish monotheistic background Christianity never abandoned the essence of religious and moral principles give to Moses e.g. Second Commandment
 Abrahamic religions

Jesus’ identity
 “Christ” = Messiah – from Greek “Christos” meaning “anointed one” – a direct translation of Hebrew “Masiah” (Messiah)
 “Lord” = divine – Hebrew “Adonai, a sacrosanct title reserved exclusively for the one God
 Nicene Creed: incarnation – apart from 4 short assertions at the end, the entire Creed is concerned with the true identity of Jesus and his relationship to the one God of Israel

God as Trinity
 one God
 3 ‘persons’: Father, Son, Spirit
=> modified monotheism

‘Trinity’ in practice
 churches and colleges – use “Trinity” as the name
 sign of the cross – Catholic & Orthodox Christians make a sign of cross during prayers
 blessings – by Christian clergy
 baptismal formula – baptized with water and an ancient formula that makes specific reference to Trinity
God as invisible and visible
Moses and the face of God
Jesus as “human face of God
 “image of the invisible God” (Col 1:15)
 “to have seen me is to see the Father” (John 14:9)
Iconoclastic literally means “image breakers”
 Iconoclastic controversy – two distinct periods of Byzantine imperial opposition to the veneration of religious images during 8th and 9th...

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