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World Civilization Study Guide Essay

1787 words - 8 pages

Chapter 7

Confucian Classics-the ancient texts recovered during the Han Dynasty that Confucian scholars treated as sacred scriptures.

Silk Road- the trade routes across central Asia through which Chinese silk and other items were traded

Eunuchs-castrated males who played an important role as palace servants

Age of division- the period after the fall of the Han dynasty when china was politically divided

Grand canal- a canal, built during the Sui dynasty that connected the yellow and Yangzi Rivers. Notable for strengthening china’s internal cohesion and economic development

Pure land- a school of Buddhism that taught that calling on the Buddha Amitabha and his chief helper, ...view middle of the document...

Merovingian- a dynasty founded in 481 by the Frankish chieftain Clovis in what is now France.
Merovingian derives from Merovech, the name of the semi legendary leader from who Clovis claimed decent

Carolingians- a dynasty of rulers that took over the Frankish kingdom from the Merovingian in the seventh century; Carolingians drives from the Latin work\d for “Charles,” the name of several members of this dynasty.

Treaty of Verdun- a treaty ratified in 843 that divided Charlemagne’s territories among his three surviving grandsons; their kingdoms set the pattern for the modern states of France, Italy and Germany

Chapter 9

Diwan- a unit of government

Imam- the leader in community prayer

Emirs- Arab governors who were given overall responsibility for public order, maintenance of the armed forces, and tax collection

Shari’a- Muslim law, which covers social, criminal, political, commercial and religious matters.

Vizier- the caliph’s chief assistant

Dhimmis- a term meaning “protected people”; they included Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians

Madrasa- a school for the study of Muslim law and religious science

Mozarabs- Christians who adopted some Arabic customs but did not convert

Chapter 10

Sudan- the African region surrounded by the Sahara, the gulf of guinea, the Atlantic Ocean and the mountains of Ethiopia

Mogadishu- a Muslim port city in east Africa founded between the eighth and tenth centuries; today it is the capital of Somalia

Ghana- from the word for ruler, the name of a large and influential African kingdom inhabited by the Soninke people

Koumbi Saleh- the city in which the king of Ghana held his court

Timbuktu- originally a campsite for desert nomads, it grew into a thriving city under Mansa Musa, king of Mali and Africa’s most famous ruler

Aksum- a kingdom in northwestern Ethiopia that was a sizable trading sate and the enter of Christian culture

Swahili- the east African coastal culture, named after a Bantu language whose vocabulary and poetic forms exhibit strong Arabic influences

Kilwa- the most powerful city on the east coast of Africa by the late thirteenth century

Great Zimbabwe-a ruined South African city discovered by a German explorer in 1871; it is considered the most powerful monument south of the Nile valley and Ethiopian highlands.

Chapter 11

Mesoamerica- the term used by scholars to designate the area of present day Mexico and central America

Khipu- an intricate system of knotted and colored strings used by early Peruvian cultures to store information such as census and tax records.

Olmecs- the oldest of early advanced Mesoamerican civilizations

Maya- a highly developed Mesoamerican culture centered in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. The Mayans...

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