A1: An examination of work and personal life conflict, organizational support, and employee health among international expatriates
Elisa J. Grant-Vallonea,*, Ellen A. Ensherb
Grant-Vallone, E.J., & Ensher, E. A. (2001). International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25(3), 261-278. doi: 10.1016/S0147-1767(01)00003-7
Abstract: This study analyzes the effect of two types of work and personal life conflict and organizational support on expatriate employees’ mental well-being. Survey data were obtained from a culturally diverse sample of 118 employees working in Europe. Overall, employees reported higher levels of work interfering with their personal life, than personal life ...view middle of the document...
the spillover between work and personal life had serious implications for employees’ mental well-being. Employees who perceived high levels of work–personal life conflict reported higher levels of depression and anxiety and employees with high levels of personal–work life conflict were more likely to be concerned with their health.
Organizational support had several important effects on employees. Employees who perceived that their organization offered a supportive environment reported lower levels of depression, anxiety, concern for their health, and work–personal life conflict. However, there was no evidence of buffering effects.
A2: The repatriate experience as seen by American expatriates
Annette B. Bossarda,*, Richard B. Petersonb,1
Journal of World Business 40 (2005) 9–28. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2004.10.002
Quite a large number of respondents felt left alone when they came back and had to find a new job within their company.
They thought the company had not done enough to help them in finding a new and interesting position where they would be able to use their newly acquired skills and nowledge.
A promotion upon repatriation is quite rare, and usually the repatriates felt their overseas job had been more interesting than their new work.
As to the communication between head-quarters and the expatriates, several respondents had the feeling of being ‘‘out of sight, out of mind’’.
that can be made is to improve intra-company communication. Many expatriates feel as if they are ‘‘out of sight, out of mind’’ while on the foreign posting, and they miss a lot of information about what is going on at headquarters in the meantime. This is often a problem when they come back home, because they do not know anymore who is doing what, how the new performance evaluation system works, what happened to the previous co-workers, and so forth. Better communication might also help the companies to gain a better picture of what their expatriates are actually doing while on assignment. Last, but not least, if the top managers of the MNCs had more international experience themselves, they would probably be better able to understand what it means to successfully complete a foreign assignment, and they could better appreciate the value of such an assignment.
A3: A new perspective on the female expatriate experience: The role of host country national categorization
Arup Varma a,*, Soo Min Toh b,1, Pawan Budhwar c,2
Journal of World Business 41 (2006) 112–12
Discussion and conclusion
In addition, research has shown that the U.S. is a highly individualistic society, with little or no emphasis on in-group and out-group categorization, while India is highly collectivistic (Hofstede, 1980). In India, individuals are often driven by the need to take care of those in their in-group, which is typically made up of extended family, and friends. Indeed, India is ranked as one of the most ‘‘collective in-group...