1) In 1939, League of Nations couldn`t deter Fascism and military power policy of major power countries, after the outbreak of WWⅡ, League of Nations failed to function properly. When WWⅡended in 1945, Germany gave unconditional surrender, and Yalta Conference was held by USSR, US and UK. The United Nations was formed this year to replace the League of Nations. In 1947, Marshall Plan was published. After this year, Western European Union and Organization for European Economic Cooperation was organized in the same year as the blockade of Berlin. 2years later, 1949, North Atlantic Treaty Organization was founded. After this, in 1954, the Treaty of Paris was made for West Germany rearmament and ...view middle of the document...
A model whose main departure from standard voting models is that there is no external enforcement mechanism: each country is sovereign and cannot be forced to follow the collective decision, or in other words, the voting system must be self-enforcing. The model yields unanimity as the optimal system for a wide range of parameters, and delivers rich predictions on the variation in the mode of governance, both across organizations and over time.
3) The growth of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at both international and national levels are due to the changing attitude of donor agencies about development assistance and the increased demand for NGO services in Third World countries. Considered part of the civil arena in society which also includes trade unions, people's associations and membership organizations, cooperatives and religious-based charities, NGOs provide a third approach to development between market-led and state-led strategies. In the post-Cold War era, governments in Third World countries are experiencing a steady decline in both fiscal support and public credibility.
4) The voting structures and
5) The first of main organs of the United Nations is General Assembly, this is the mail deliberative assembly of the United Nations. Composed of all United Nations member states, the assembly meets in regular yearly sessions under a president elected from among the member states. Over two-week period at the start of each session, all members have the opportunity to address the assembly.
The second organ is Security Council. This organ is charged with maintaining peace and security among countries. While other organs of the United Nations can only make recommendations to member governments, the Security Council has the power to make binding decisions that member governments have agreed to carry out, under the terms of Charter Article 25. The decisions of the Council are known as United Nations Security Council resolutions.
Third organ is Secretariat. This is headed by the Secretary-General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. It provides studies, information, and facilities needed by United Nations bodies for their meetings. It also carries out tasks as directed by UN bodies.
Next organ is the International Court of Justice. It is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. Its purpose is to adjust disputes among states. The court has heard cases related to war crimes, illegal state interference and ethnic cleansing, among others, and continues to hear cases.
Economic and Social Council is the fifth organ. ECOSOC assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. It is well-positioned to provide policy coherence and coordinate the overlapping functions of the UN`s subsidiary bodies and it is in these roles that it is most active.
Formerly sixth organ was the Trusteeship Council suspended operations in 1994....