Wireless energy transfer
Wireless energy transfer or Wireless Power is the process that takes place in any system where electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load without interconnecting wires. Wireless transmission is useful in cases where instantaneous or continuous energy transfer is needed but interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible.
Wireless energy transfer is different from wireless transmission of information, such as radio, where the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or the percentage of power received becomes critical only if it is too low to adequately recover the signal. With wireless power transmission, efficiency is the more ...view middle of the document...
Induction cookers and many electric toothbrushes are also powered by this technique.
The main drawback to induction, however, is the short range. The receiver must be very close to the transmitter or induction unit in order to inductively couple with it.
 Electrodynamic induction
Main article: resonant energy transfer
The "electrodynamic inductive effect" or "resonant inductive coupling" has key implications in solving the main problem associated with non-resonant inductive coupling for wireless energy transfer; specifically, the dependence of efficiency on transmission distance. Electromagnetic induction works on the principle of a primary coil generating a predominantly magnetic field and a secondary coil being within that field so a current is induced in the secondary. Coupling must be tight in order to achieve high efficiency. As the distance from the primary is increased, more and more of the magnetic field misses the secondary. Even over a relatively small range the simple induction method is grossly inefficient, wasting much of the transmitted energy.
The application of resonance improves the situation somewhat. When resonant coupling is used the transmitter and receiver inductors are tuned to a mutual frequency and the drive current is modified from a sinusoidal to a nonsinusoidal transient waveform. Pulse power transfer occurs over multiple cycles. In this way significant power may be transmitted over a distance of up to a few times the size of the transmitter. Unlike the multiple-layer windings typical of non-resonant transformers, such transmitting and receiving coils are usually single layer solenoids or flat spirals with series capacitors, which, in combination, allow the receiving element to be tuned to the transmitter frequency and reduce losses.
A common use of the technology is for powering contactless smartcards, and systems exist to power and recharge laptops and cell phones.
 Electrostatic induction
Main article: Capacitive coupling
Tesla illuminating two exhausted tubes by means of a powerful, rapidly alternating electrostatic field created between two vertical metal sheets suspended from the ceiling on insulating cords.
The "electrostatic induction effect" or "capacitive coupling" is an electric field gradient or differential capacitance between two elevated electrodes over a conducting ground plane for wireless energy transmission involving high frequency alternating current potential differences transmitted between two plates or nodes. The electrostatic forces through natural media across a conductor situated in the changing magnetic flux can transfer energy to a receiving device (such as Tesla's wireless bulbs). Sometimes called "the Tesla effect" it is the application of a type of electrical displacement, i.e., the passage of electrical energy through space and matter, other than and in addition to the development of a potential across a...