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Why Did Italy Change From A Fascist Government To A New Government

2129 words - 9 pages

Italian Fascism became an extremely important phenomenon under the reign of Benito Mussolini during the Second World War. With a run of 22 years, Fascism and its creator became the focal point of Europe during this time. Many Italian citizens, as well as critics believed that Fascism could be a third option, or the in between of Capitalism and Communism, two ideals that Mussolini refused to accept. With the Allies landing on the shores of Italy in their advance to Fascist capital, Mussolini fought for his ideals while the Allies aimed to liberate the country and the citizens who did not follow Mussolini’s government. Why did Italy change from a fascist government to a new government in the ...view middle of the document...

With the bombing of Rome comes the armistice that Walter Bedell Smith recalls in his own memoirs of the raid on Italy, and his own involvement in the armistice that ultimately ends Italy’s involvement with the Axis Powers, thus ending Fascism in Italy.
Benito Mussolini attained his goals within the Italian government through pessimism, the deception of Italian supporters, and pure coercion. Mussolini took advantage of the newly established liberal democracy and its developmental issues involving the economy more specifically, and the doubt that the citizens held for any liberation from poverty. With all of this, came his rise to dictatorship and the development of a fascist government in 1919 that encompassed a violent, structureless play on patriotism and a negative view on all other governmental structures such as Marxism and liberalism. What most people consider Italian Fascism quickly became known as “Mussolinism”. Mussolini even managed to gain the support of Pope Pius XII with the promise of mandating religious instruction within the schools, and the promise to reinstate the crucifix throughout schools and courts.
He continued to promise the Italians, who were ultimately fed up with the poverty, that he would create a new Roman Empire that would bring them success. Communism would also be expelled from Italy under his control, and the reduction of the League of Nation’s power within their country using a Four-Power Pact, or the Quadripartite Agreement that Mussolini believed would be a more efficient means of assuring international safety. This however backfired on Mussolini, and instead of calming Europe it did the reverse. Further strife came about when Mussolini used his excuse to create a new Roman Empire to invade Ethiopia as a means to colonize the country. This led to objections from the League of Nations, but due to their lack of action, Italy continued its annexation, which led to an alliance with Hitler and Nazi Germany in 1937. Mussolini and Italy however were not prepared for war because of Mussolini’s carelessness regarding money during the Spanish Civil war and with Ethiopia in 1935. Italy was basically bankrupt, and could not afford military expenditures compared to its now enemies, France and Britain.
With many losses under his belt including the failed attempts in Northern and Eastern Africa, as well as Greece, Mussolini caused Italy to become entirely dependent on Nazi Germany. All he could hope for in the end was a win by Germany due to Italy’s dependence on the country. Italian citizens were listening to the BBC in secret as opposition to Mussolini and Fascist Italy, and the resistance only continued to grow from there.
Following the invasion of Sicily by the Allied powers in order to hold off Axis troops, a decision to invade Rome became an important mission. Rome, by Mussolini and Hitler’s definition, was the capital of Fascist Italy, therefore a vital part of the eradication of fascism. Franklin Roosevelt,...

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