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What Will Be A "Game Changer" For Europe And Poland: Secure Supplies, Shale Gas, Open Market Or Renewable Energy

1039 words - 5 pages

WHAT WILL BE A "GAME CHANGER" FOR EUROPE AND POLAND: SECURE SUPPLIES, SHALE GAS, OPEN MARKET OR RENEWABLE ENERGY (a "game changer" means- which of the mentioned options will influence strongly/determine energy developments in Europe and Poland)

Zarówno w Polsce, jak i w Europie można zaobserwować wielkie zmiany zachodzące w sektorze energetyki. W ostatnich latach zintensyfikowano poszukiwania złóż gazu łupkowego, Polska przygotowuje się do wzniesienia elektrowni atomowej, ponadto wdraża się system inteligentnych sieci, a także co raz bardziej wspiera się inicjatywy dotyczące odnawialnych źródeł energii oraz gorąco debatuje się nad kwestiami ekologicznymi oraz emisji CO2.
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Pierwsze plany takiej elektrowni były już 20 lat temu w Żarnowcu. Niestety pomysł ten nie powiódł się z powodu silnych protestów ekologów. Polski parlament przyjął nową ustawę dotyczącą energii atomowej, które umożliwia budowę i eksploatację tego typu projektu w Polsce. Technologia ta wzbudza wiele emocji wśród społeczności, w szczególności po ostatnich wydarzeniach mających miejsce w japońskiej elektrowni atomowej Fukushima. Wielu przeciwników niestety często jest niedoinformowana i posługuje się stereotypami w wyrażaniu swojej opinii o tego typu przedsięwzięciach. Aparat państwowy aktualnie prowadzi działania, które mają na celu informowanie społeczeństwa na tematy energetyki atomowej i jej ewentualnych skutkach działających w Polsce.
Kwestie klimatyczne stały się w ostatnich latach przedmiotem dyskusji na arenie międzynarodowej. W latach 90’ państwa najbardziej uprzemysłowione zobowiązały się redukcji gazów cieplarnianych, o średnio ponad 5%. Polska również przyjęła takie zobowiązanie. Unia Europejska również traktuje kwestie środowiskowe niezwykle priorytetowo i dlatego też wprowadzono wiele restrykcyjnych norm dotyczących ograniczenia szkodliwych emisji. Jednym z nich są cele redukcji emisji gazów cieplarniach o 20%. Dla Polski takie wyzwanie, jest niezwykle trudne do osiągniecia z racji tego, że koszyk energetyczny kraju składa się w 50% z węgla. Regulacje takie mogą poważnie wpływać na hamowanie rozwoju gospodarczego krajów. Koszt wprowadzenia takich regulacji wpływać może nie tylko na budżety – bo są to rozwiązania niezwykle drogie we wprowadzeniu – to przyczyniać się mogą również do powstania kosztów alternatywnych, takich jak utracenie udziałów w rynkach, czy utraty miejsc pracy.
W ostatnim czasie w Polsce oraz w innych krajach Europy zaczęto dynamiczne poszukiwania złóż gazu łupkowego. Dostępność tego niekonwencjonalnego znacznie prawdopodobnie przewyższają zasoby konwencyjnego gazu. Szacunkowo w Polsce znajduje się od 346 do 768 mld m3 gazu ze skał łupkowych. Co prawa poszukiwania znajdują się w początkowym stadium, ale proces ten bardzo dynamicznie się rozwija. Niestety, brak poważniejszych inwestycji skutkuje brakiem potwierdzenia szacunków wielkości rezerw, a także ich wydobycia. Tym niemniej, Polska jest liderem pośród państw Wspólnoty Europejskiej jeśli chodzi o zaawansowanie prac szacunkowych zasobów gazu oraz poziomu opłacalności jego wydobycia.
Uważam, że przyszłość energetyki w Polsce rysować się będzie na wzór polityki energetycznej prowadzonej w Unii Europejskiej. W Polsce będzie miejsce i dla dużej energetyki, jak i również dla tej rozproszonej, która wykorzystywać będzie energię z odnawialnych źródeł energii. Przeszkodą dla rozwoju rozporoszonej energetyki na dużą skalę okazać się może konieczność instalacji dużych systemów elektroenergetycznych. Dodatkowo, nie uważam, aby niekonwencjonalne źródła energii stały się podstawą energetyczną Polski, czy Europy. Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne oparte powinno być na...

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