Analysis of Business Issues
The George Washington University
October 13, 2015
There are many organizations in the world today that are composed of four generations of employees with an age range spanning more than 60 years. Each generation is a distinct group, including the Silent Generation (1925-1942), Baby Boomers (1943-1960), Generation X (1961-1981), and Generation Y or Millennials, (1982-2005). These dates are given by Strauss and Howe (1991) to define each generational cohort. Each of the generational cohort brings varying beliefs, work ethics, values, attitudes, and expectations with it to an organization (Niemiec, 2000). Generation Y is the most recent and ...view middle of the document...
Herzberg’s theory stated that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are affected by two factors, motivator factors and hygiene/maintenance factors.
Motivation may be defined as internal forces, either pleasant or unpleasant, experienced by an individual that directs behaviors to satisfy the needs or wants of experiences (Dessler, 1986).
Maslow theorized that man was essentially good and has great potential with a drive to constantly grow (Maslow, 1954). He proposed that much of human behavior could be explained from the needs that are experienced, which shape behaviors (Hall & Williams, 2000). Therefore, human needs are a source of motivation. Maslow further states that only unsatisfied needs are the premise of motivation. Essentially, people are motivated by unmet needs in a hierarchical order in which all lower level needs must be met first (Maslow, 1954). Maslow’s needs hierarchy involves five categories and is commonly used to classify human behavior. The five needs are:
1. Physiological or basic needs are at the base of the hierarchy. These are the basic needs that include food, clothing, comfort, shelter, physical, and other necessities. According to Hall and William (2000), “as these needs are adapted to the work place, they are often reflected in concerns for pleasant working conditions, more leisure time, more luxurious personal property, increased salary, and avoidance of physical strain or discomfort”.
2. Safety needs are the second level in the hierarchy. Once all basic needs have been satisfied, an individual’s attention will redirect to security, predictability, orderliness, and harm avoidance (Hall & Williams, 2000). Safety needs on the job resonate with fringe benefits that may include worker compensation, insurance, retirement plans, performance standards, and safe working conditions.
3. Social or belongingness needs are on the third level of the hierarchy and become apparent when safety needs are satisfied. Belongingness needs emerge when a person desires to have meaningful interpersonal relationships (Hall & Williams, 2000). This need is relevant with a need for acceptance, belonging, and group affiliation within the organization. “On the job, belongingness needs are reflected in concern for friendly colleagues, opportunities for interaction with others, harmonious relations, and team membership” (Hall & Williams, 2000).
4. Ego-status needs are on the fourth level and concerned with achieving a special status within the group after belongingness needs are met. A person will desire to be recognized for his/her ambition and work on the job. This need will allow an individual to show competencies and seek out opportunities in hopes to reap rewards both social and professional. Ego-status needs motivate employees to work hard in the organization in order to gain recognition.
5. Self-actualization needs are at the top of the hierarchy and focus on autonomy and the intrinsic rewards of...