UniSA – University of South Australia Management Principles (BUSS 1054) |
What Management is, what Managers do and what skills Managers need |
Edoardo Esposito Student No. 110137424
Table of Contents
What management is 2
What managers do 2
What managers need 3
The aim of this essay is to describe what management is in order to understand the importance it covers nowadays within organizations. Then it analyses ...view middle of the document...
What managers do
Once defined what management is, understanding who managers are, what they do and what kind of responsibilities they have, is important to comprehend how much they are central within organizations. Managers, firstly, differentiate themselves because of the role of directing and supervising employees’ activities; using the functions approach, proposed by Henri Fayol (1917), four functions can be identified:
* Planning: laying out the actions to be taken, in order to accomplish goals and attaining to them as much as possible, trying to optimize resource to be used;
* Organizing: laying out and design the lines of authority and responsibility, creating an organizational structure that best fits to the changings of the environment;
* Leading: directing others’ work activities, motivating and avoiding conflicts;
* Controlling: monitoring, comparing and correcting, taking care of the differences founded from the originally planned course of action and what corrective actions have to be taken.
These functions can be seen as a cycle. In fact, especially planning and controlling are activities to be done so often in order to keep a high level of the customer service, in terms of quality of the goods or services offered and responsiveness to the market demand.
Otherwise, depending on the position managers cover in the organizational structure, it is possible to make a distinction between Top Managers, Middle Managers and First-Line Managers. Top Managers are the senior executives of an organization; they are responsible for the overall management, looking for long-term solutions and strategies. These positions are responsible for setting the direction of the organization and, furthermore, their values shape the culture of the organization. Top managers are called to be also leaders, in order to create commitment and a corporate purpose in which employees can identify themselves. A clear example of a manager that represents a charismatic leader is Steve Jobs, Apple’s CEO until his death in 2011. He insisted on elegant design and simplicity; these values are those he tried to transmit to Apple’s employees, pushing people accomplishing their dream and moreover.
Middle Managers, whose can be founded in the organization’s hierarchy below top managers, have to pay attention of the activity of other managers, translating the developed plans by top management into a course of action more detailed and specific. Lastly, first line managers are responsible for coordinating and supervising the operations of the organizations, so their role is crucial because represents the link between managers and non-managerial employees.
What managers need
After identified and classified the roles within the organizations, managers need different sets of skills depending on the role they are covering. Katz’s research (1955) finds that managers need three essential skills:
* Technical skills: those skills are heavily...