HS150 World Civilizations
China was divided for almost four centuries. It became unified in 581 with the founding of the new dynasties, Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties. During the time of these dynasties, many changes took place. There were changes in the political, social, and economic structures. The first changes took place during the Sui dynasty in 581. Additional changes took place during the Tang dynasty in 618, and the Song dynasty in 960.
The Sui dynasty was founded by Yang Jian. Jian was a member of a respected aristocratic family in northern China. (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2009) Yang Jian turned to Daoism and Buddhism to unify the ...view middle of the document...
The Tang dynasty lasted from 618AD-907AD. It maintained control ranging from Korea, Southern Manchuria, and Northern Vietnam. The Tang dynasty used a system of equal land allotment to the male population. Tang’s greatest source of income was tax on allotments. Periodic military service was required from all males. This was the basis of Tang’s military. Tang’s political system included comprehensive administration, an official system, a strict legal system, and an equitable imperial examination system. The economy reached an advanced level. Series of reforms were implemented; Juntian Zhi (Land Equalization System), Zuyongdiao System (peasant’s burden was lessened and production efficiency was improved. Farm tools and agriculture technique was improved, and many of the irrigation works were completed). Commercial cites were opened during the Tang dynasty, Lanzhou, Chengdu, Guilin, Hangzhou, Chang’an (currently Xian), and Luoyang (the auxiliary capital). The opening of the Silk Road introduced foreign merchants and ambassadors promoted marine trade. The economy was seriously damaged after the AnShi rebellion. The Juntian Zhi and Zuyongdiao systems were destroyed. This brought about the Double Tax System. This system imposed tax according to wealth and helped resume fiscal revenue. It was also a good example for later tax reforms.
The Song dynasty came in to power in 960 and ended in 1279. It consisted of the Northern Song and Southern Song. Northern Song...