What is CPR?
CPR stands for CardioPulmonary Resuscitation i.e. to help restart the heart (pulse) and lungs (breathing).
When do we perform CPR?
CPR is performed when a person stops breathing and/or the heart stops.
Why is it important to learn CPR?
Every year about 350,000 people suffer cardiac arrest i.e. their heart stops. Sudden cardiac death is the most common cause of death in United States and Canada. If you know how to perform CPR you may be able to save a life.
Why timing is important?
When the heart (pulse) and lung (breathing) stops, the victim has 5 minutes before (gradual) brain death starts to occur, if no CPR is performed. Therefore, it is very important to start ...view middle of the document...
When you are breathing air in, the oxygen passes from your lungs to the blood vessels where it is added to your blood. Carbon dioxide, a waste product, is passed from the used blood, to the lungs and is removed from your body when you are breathing out. The oxygen-rich blood enters the heart from the lungs to the left atrium. The left atrium pumps the oxygen-rich blood, to the left ventricle which then pumps through aorta (main blood vessel), to the rest of the body.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation |
• Ensure the scene is safe
• Check for response
• If no response i.e. unresponsive and lack of normal breathing ( no breathing or only gasping), then
• Activate EMS (Emergency Medical Services) and get or call for AED (automated externaldefibrillator)
• Immediately start the chest compressions
• The rescuer should place the heel of one hand on the center (middle) of the victim's chest (which is the lower half of the sternum) and the heel of the other hand on top of the first so that the hands are overlapped, and the arms are locked at the elbow and at 90 degree to the victim's chest
• Start compression ( at least 2 inches in depth) at least 100 per minute. Allow complete chest recoil after each compression to allow heart to refill with blood.
• After 30 compressions, open the airway and give breaths – Head tilt-chin lift (push the forehead back with one hand and lift the chin to move the jaw forward with the other hand)
• Give 2 breaths, each for 1 second duration, look for chest rise. If the first breath doesn't make the chest rise and fall, then reposition the head i.e. head tilt-chin lift, and re administer the breaths. Give one breath, every 5-6 second intervals (10-12 breaths per minute).
• Continue 30 compressions followed by 2 ventilations i.e. ratio of 30:2
• AED should be used as soon as it is available, resume chest compressions immediately after the shock is given. |
One and Two Rescuer:
• 30:2 chest compressions to ventilations (breaths)
• For two rescuers: change the compressor/ rescuer every 2 minutes i.e. every 5 cycles to avoid fatigue.
If a person is drowning or a victim of foreign body airway obstruction, complete the 5 cycle or 2 minutes of CPR before activating the EMS (If only one rescuer is present and the EMS has not been activated)
• Recognition of cardiac arrest (no response and no breathing or only gasping breath)
• Activation of EMS
• Immediate CPR (chest compressions followed by breaths)
• Rapid use of AED if available
| 1 Rescuer
Compression to Ventilation ratio | 2 Rescuer Compression to Ventilation ratio |
Rescue Breaths |
Adult CPR |
- at least 100/minute
- at least 2 inches depth of the chest
- 1 second duration
- Every 5-6 seconds
- 10-12 breaths/minute |
Conscious and choking: ...