Wars and Revolutions of Western Civilizations
HIS 102- OL012
War and Revolutions have happened all over the world for many different reasons. Some were for social and cultural change, others for political change and most of them for nation dominance. The Wars and Revolutions in Europe had an everlasting impact and either heightened or hindered the area in which it took place. Yet through the masses of all the social and political upheaval, we see arise an alliance where the nation finally came together to turn any ones state strength or weakness to offset another.
The revolutions of 1830 through 1832 were the breakthrough of ...view middle of the document...
” (Palmer, 470) We see that Belgium and Poland joined together to prevent pressure of Russian power. The Belgian leaders simply asked for self-government, but, Nicholas of Russia did not want it and wanted to send troops to get rid of these leaders, yet, could not safely get through Poland. The Polish diet proclaimed the dethronement of the Polish king, but with no backing they were quickly crushed. This end result led to a pact between Belgium and Poland and the Treaty of Vienna in 1831, which made Belgium a neutral state. This gave Belgium the freedom they needed to setup a parliamentary system and more liberal rule.
We see the same insurrection taking place in Great Britain. “Radical leaders in England got the notion that violence might be useful.” (Palmer, 472) The Liberal Tories were formed and sought to the needs of British business and liberal doctrines of free trade. They wanted to reduce tariffs and liberalize the old Navigation Acts, which permitted British colonies to trade with countries other than Britain. They also undermined the Church of England and demanded a more secular state and repealed old laws in which forbid Protestants to hold public office. They even repealed the Test Act which would give Catholics in Great Britain and Ireland the same rights as others.
The Liberal Tories knew the only way to achieve all what they were after is to have a bill pass in the House of Commons. “The Reform Bill of 1832 was made to create equal electoral districts based on economic status.” (Palmer, 474) By the Radicals using just enough violence and the Liberals focused on freedom helped further democratization of Parliament and a better social and economic program through an orderly legislation.
The revolutions and the process of republicanism that was pushed down in 1830, begin to be more socialistic in 1848 and Radicals once again set in place strong movements to give the vote to more people, Universal male suffrage, and a republic, but this time Liberals only wanted a broadening of voting rights within the existing constitutional monarchy. This began the start of the European Revolutions of 1848.
Revolutionary Movement 1848
The revolutionary movement started in France and quickly spread to most of Europe and many parts of Latin America. Five major factors were involved 1) dissatisfaction with political leadership 2) more participation in government and democracy 3) equality in the working class 4) the rise of nationalism and 5) regrouping based on status. “These movements were led by ad hoc coalitions, mostly middle class and workers, which could not hold together long.”(Palmer, 486) Many people were killed and many more were forced into exile.
Thousands of changes were taking place throughout Europe in 1848 and both radical and liberal reformers wanted to reshape national government. This change was not only revolutionizing the working class life, but, new values and ideas such as popular liberalism, nationalism and socialism....