Eating, Substance, Sexual/Gender, Sex, and Personality Disorders
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV-TR, which was published in 2000, is a multi-axial diagnostic tool used by clinicians, psychologists, psychiatrist, and medical professionals for the classification of mental disorders (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Axis I and Axis II of the DSM-IV-TR cover symptom disorders—those typified by unwelcome types of distress and/or impairment—and personality disorders—those exemplified by inflexible personality traits that bring about impairment and/or distress—respectively. It is possible to be diagnosed with both symptom disorders and personality disorders. Notwithstanding, ...view middle of the document...
g. within any 2-hour period), an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat during a similar period of time and under similar circumstances” (BehaveNet, 1997-2010, n.p.). From there a person can purge—vomit or use laxatives, diuretics, or enemas—or use inappropriate compensatory behaviors. A genetic component to bulimia nervosa has been found to exist, as seen in a concordance rate of 35% and 30% for monozygotic and dizygotic twins, respectively (Fairburn & Harrison, 2003). Eating disorders are characterized by the cognitive estimation that “…one’s physical shape reflects one’s value or worth” (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p. 296). Furthermore, compensatory behavior (e.g. excessive exercise, fasting, or medications) can occur concurrently or in exclusion to purging behavior (BehaveNet, 1997-2010). On an subjective level, bulimia nervosa can be a “…purely emotional response to the world—under pressure, binge and purge; sad and lonely, binge and purge; feeling hungry, binge and purge…” (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p. 282). In all, bulimia nervosa is a complex disorder, rooted in genetic predisposition, but precipitated by sociocultural influences, cognitive estimations, and emotional responses.
Substance disorders fall into two major Axis I categories: abuse or dependency; with a wide range of possible resulting disorders (BehaveNet, 1997-2010). The potential substances that can be abused or misused in the DSM-IV-TR include: alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, nicotine, opioids, phencyclidine or; sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic abuse. These categories of substance abuse are made relevant by the fact that nearly 25% of deaths in the United States each year are drug and alcohol related (Hansell & Damour, 2008).
Physiological dependence occurs when a drug or other substance becomes necessary for normal bodily functions and the cessation of said substance brings with it withdrawal symptoms (Chapman, Meyer & Weaver, 2009). What is more, “Clinicians often note that when serious substance problems begin, an individual’s emotional development stops” (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p. 325). The efficacy of drug use is driven by the expectancy of good feelings, a sense of relaxation, and less emotional stress. Alcohol abuse is characterized by, “…continued substance-related use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems” (BehaveNet, 1997-2010, p. 291.9). In sum, alcohol abuse is continued because normal bodily functions become dependent on the drug, even in the face of recurrent social or interpersonal problems.
Sex and gender disorders fall into the Axis I categories of: sexual dysfunctions (sexual desire/sexual arousal), sexual pain disorders, and gender identity disorder (BehaveNet, 1997-2010). When considering sex and gender disorders it is imperative to keep in mind that normal and abnormal behaviors occur on a continuum and...