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Week2 Psy410 Essay

1629 words - 7 pages

Eating, Substance, Sexual/Gender, Sex, and Personality Disorders
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV-TR, which was published in 2000, is a multi-axial diagnostic tool used by clinicians, psychologists, psychiatrist, and medical professionals for the classification of mental disorders (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Axis I and Axis II of the DSM-IV-TR cover symptom disorders—those typified by unwelcome types of distress and/or impairment—and personality disorders—those exemplified by inflexible personality traits that bring about impairment and/or distress—respectively. It is possible to be diagnosed with both symptom disorders and personality disorders. Notwithstanding, ...view middle of the document...

g. within any 2-hour period), an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat during a similar period of time and under similar circumstances” (BehaveNet, 1997-2010, n.p.). From there a person can purge—vomit or use laxatives, diuretics, or enemas—or use inappropriate compensatory behaviors. A genetic component to bulimia nervosa has been found to exist, as seen in a concordance rate of 35% and 30% for monozygotic and dizygotic twins, respectively (Fairburn & Harrison, 2003). Eating disorders are characterized by the cognitive estimation that “…one’s physical shape reflects one’s value or worth” (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p. 296). Furthermore, compensatory behavior (e.g. excessive exercise, fasting, or medications) can occur concurrently or in exclusion to purging behavior (BehaveNet, 1997-2010). On an subjective level, bulimia nervosa can be a “…purely emotional response to the world—under pressure, binge and purge; sad and lonely, binge and purge; feeling hungry, binge and purge…” (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p. 282). In all, bulimia nervosa is a complex disorder, rooted in genetic predisposition, but precipitated by sociocultural influences, cognitive estimations, and emotional responses.
Substance Disorders
Substance disorders fall into two major Axis I categories: abuse or dependency; with a wide range of possible resulting disorders (BehaveNet, 1997-2010). The potential substances that can be abused or misused in the DSM-IV-TR include: alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, nicotine, opioids, phencyclidine or; sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic abuse. These categories of substance abuse are made relevant by the fact that nearly 25% of deaths in the United States each year are drug and alcohol related (Hansell & Damour, 2008).
Alcohol Abuse
Physiological dependence occurs when a drug or other substance becomes necessary for normal bodily functions and the cessation of said substance brings with it withdrawal symptoms (Chapman, Meyer & Weaver, 2009). What is more, “Clinicians often note that when serious substance problems begin, an individual’s emotional development stops” (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p. 325). The efficacy of drug use is driven by the expectancy of good feelings, a sense of relaxation, and less emotional stress. Alcohol abuse is characterized by, “…continued substance-related use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems” (BehaveNet, 1997-2010, p. 291.9). In sum, alcohol abuse is continued because normal bodily functions become dependent on the drug, even in the face of recurrent social or interpersonal problems.
Sex/Gender Disorders
Sex and gender disorders fall into the Axis I categories of: sexual dysfunctions (sexual desire/sexual arousal), sexual pain disorders, and gender identity disorder (BehaveNet, 1997-2010). When considering sex and gender disorders it is imperative to keep in mind that normal and abnormal behaviors occur on a continuum and...

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