Terms in Review (p.204, problems 1-4).
1. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the survey to those of observation. Under which circumstances could you make a case for using observation?
Surveys allow for data collection through questions formatted to obtain measurable answers directly from participants. Observational studies collect data by “monitoring behavioral and nonbehavioral activities and conditions” (Cooper & Schindler, 2011, p. 189). By recording observations researchers collect the data they need to answer their questions. Advantages of the survey method include: the ability to reach a large population, there are multiple options to administer the survey ...view middle of the document...
2. What ethical risks are involved in observation? In the use of unobtrusive measures?
One ethical issue deals with consent and how it’s not usually obtained from participants in observational studies. Another issue is privacy of the participants and any data collected, and another is bias that may influence or change the results of the study. Unobtrusive measures deal with many of the same ethical risks. Concealment is an even bigger issue, because subjects have no knowledge that any research is being conducted. Collins and Schindler discuss unobtrusive measures which include collecting garbage from homes to obtain data etc. (2011, p. 203). These measures, while they don’t directly involve contact with participants, do intrude on their privacy.
3. Based on present or past work experience, suggest problems that could be resolved using observation-based data.
In healthcare we conduct many studies to determine to learn about all different types of things. In the IT department an observational study could be conducted to resolve workflow issues. Since often there is a hold up in projects being completed, because work gets stuck in departments or a project is moved forward to a department that is unable to start work without another area completing their work on it. Using observation methods, the workflow could be examined and observed to find areas that can be improved. Another problem that could be resolved through observation-based data is traffic flow issues around the hospital campus. Since there have been several minor vehicle accidents for cars exiting and entering the different parking ramps, as well as vehicle congestion around the emergency department entrance delaying ambulance arrivals, observing the traffic flow for these two areas could uncover data that could aid in correcting these problems.
4. Distinguish between the following:
a. The relative value of communication and observation.
Communication allows for information to be gathered about expectations such as past, present, or future. It also allows for information about attitudes and expectations to be gathered when it would usually not be reflected through observation, and it’s less expensive than observation methods. Observation allows for data to be collected as it occurs. Investigators are able to examine the whole event surrounding actions or behaviors. Observing is less intrusive that communication, but it is often more expensive. Usually observation methods can’t be used to observe historical events or information and usually requires an observer to be physically present while the event is occurring.
b. Nonverbal, linguistic, and extralinguistic analysis.
Nonverbal analysis includes observing body movement, motor expressions, and exchanged glances. Linguistic analysis includes observing how someone talks. This could include calculating the number of times someone uses “ums” or “ahs”...