Week 1 Exercise
1. Describe a local land line phone system based on the following Landline Telephone Components:
a. Local Loop
The local loop is the physical wiring that connects you to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). This line can be a voice line, or it can be a data line. The physical wiring for the local loop consists of a pair of twisted copper wires that run from the telephone company's central office to the subscriber's premise and another pair of twisted copper wires that run back to the telephone company's Central Office1
b. Central Office
A Central Office is part of the telephone network in your area. It is a building in which the phone lines in your home or ...view middle of the document...
Some of the ﬁrst installations lacked the ability to be connected to more than one telephone. This is known as a fixed line.
2. Define and describe the following Telecommunications Network Components:
a. Cellular Telephones:
Cellular telephones are wireless telephones that are served by a cellular telephone system. This system is broken into many small geographical areas called cells. Cells are connected to a mobile telephone switching ofﬁce (MTSO). The connection from the cell to the MTSO is typically done over telephone lines. These lines could be copper or ﬁber optic, and in some applications, micro-waves are used.
The ﬁrst generation (1G) cell phones transmitted information in an analog format very similar to the way a ﬁxed-line telephone transmits voice information from the subscriber to the central ofﬁce. However, when the second generation (2G) cell phones entered the market, transmission shifted from analog to digital. Not only do 2G telephones have the ability to transmit and receive voice, but they also have the ability to transmit and receive data.
As 2G technologies matured, it became clear that the cell phone could be used for many applications other than just carrying on a conversation. Many people were using their cell phones to access the Internet. To meet consumer need for data, a third generation (3G) of cell phone technology was introduced. 3G technologies offered higher data rates over 2G, paving the way for multimedia applications While many cell phones in operation today are 3G, they will eventually all be replaced with fourth generation (4G) technology. 4G networks offer 10 or more times the data transmission rate of a 3G network. The data rates available on a 4G network allow the cell phone to access information from the Internet as fast as a land-line connection.
b. Telephone Network Topology:
i. Demarcation Point
The demarcation point, also known as the Demarc, Network Interface Device (NID), or Minimum Point of Entry (MPOE) serves several purposes:
It is the point that defines the end of the telephone company’s wiring, and the beginning of your wiring.
It defines where the telephone company’s responsibility for maintenance ends and your responsibility begins.
It contains a surge suppressor to help protect the wiring and connected equipment in your facility from damage
It allows you to temporarily disconnect your wiring from the telephone company’s wiring for troubleshooting purposes.
Cables making up the core networks need to go very long distances across many states within the country. They typically follow well-deﬁned routes such as highways and railways.
iv. Access Networks
An access network or outside plant refers to the series of wires, cables and equipment lying between a consumer/business telephone termination point (the point at which a telephone connection reaches the customer) and the local telephone exchange.