Wages: Is There Really a Gender Pay Gap
The wages used in the following research paper were taken from a population of 100 workers and divided by 12 descriptive statistics. The purpose of this research is to determine if there really is a gender gap with wages. The following descriptive statistics were used: wage, industry, occupation, education, location (from the south or not from the south), non-white, Hispanic, female, ex-military, marital status, age and Union. This research paper will include the problem statement, research question, hypothesis, definitions, presentation of data, conclusion, implication, recommendations and reference page. This research ...view middle of the document...
This gap has narrowed since the 70’s due largely to women’s progress in education, workforce participation and men’s wages rising at a slower rate. (Linda D. Hallman, CAE AAUW Executive Director, 2012)
The pay gap is the difference in men’s and women’s typical earnings, usually reported as either the earnings ratio between men and women or as an actual pay gap. The median value is the middle value, with equal numbers of full-time workers earning more and earning less; it is used to prevent especially high salaries from skewing the results.
Frequency Distribution - Quantitative
lower upper midpoint width frequency percent frequency percent
0 < 10,000 5,000 ##### 1 1.0 1 1.0
10,000 < 20,000 15,000 ##### 32 32.0 33 33.0
20,000 < 30,000 25,000 ##### 23 23.0 56 56.0
30,000 < 40,000 35,000 ##### 24 24.0 80 80.0
40,000 < 50,000 45,000 ##### 6 6.0 86 86.0
50,000 < 60,000 55,000 ##### 6 6.0 92 92.0
60,000 < 70,000 65,000 ##### 4 4.0 96 96.0
70,000 < 80,000 75,000 ##### 1 1.0 97 97.0
80,000 < 90,000 85,000 ##### 3 3.0 100 100.0
Hypothesis Test: Independent Groups (t-test, unequal variance)
30,833.4600 39.11 mean
16,947.0973 12.57 std. dev.
100 100 n
30,794.35000 difference (Wage - Age)
1,694.71019 standard error of difference
0 hypothesized difference
2.67E-33 p-value (two-tailed)
Presentation of data
In 1963, Congress passed the Equal Pay Act, which requires employers to give men and women employees “equal pay for equal work.” One year later, in 1964, the Civil Rights Act was passed. Title VII of that act bars all discrimination in employment, including discrimination in hiring, firing, promotion, and wages on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. (DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, & Smith, 2011)
Yet these legal protections have not ensured equal pay for women and men. The first piece of legislation signed into law by President Barack Obama, the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, provides some additional protection against discrimination. The law clarifies that pay discrimination occurs when a pay decision is made, when an employee is subject to that decision, or at any time an employee is injured by it; employees have 180 days from any of those instances to file a claim. (www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat39.pdf, 2011)
In part, these pay gaps do reflect men’s and women’s choices, especially the choice of college major and the type of job pursued after graduation. For example, women are more likely than men to go into teaching, and this contributes to the pay gap because teachers tend to earn less than other college graduates. His portion of the pay...