Very young children should be reared in environments which support their development
This essay will discuss why it is important for very young children to be reared in environments which support and nurture their growth and development.
Child development is a major focus of research in psychology for a long time. Current approaches to explain how children grow and develop have been addressed in several theories, but rarely rest on any theory exclusively.
The Topic focus will be based on four child development theories which came out as a product of major research in psychology. Those four theories are: social learning theory, cognitive-developmental ...view middle of the document...
Important roles in motivation play are reinforcement and punishment, which could be very effective.
For children, parents are first models. Children will not model everything what they observe, only some actions, of some individuals (Berger, 2002).Observation will teach children the probable consequences of new behavior where they can see what happens when others try it (Crain, 2005).With his ‘Bobo doll’ study Bandura confirmed that children learn by observing others behavior and they imitate that behavior. In this study and adult acted violently towards Bobo doll. When children later played with theBobo doll, they imitated aggressive actions.
The babies have an active mind. Through normal and a gradual learning process, behavior patterns are established and power of the adult mind is gradually built up. Proper social learning methods in the years from birth to six years of age largely determine the kind of person child will become (Berger, 2002). Children have an absorbent mind because of its great ability to learn and assimilate without effort and total unconsciously from the world around him or her. From an early age children want to be independent and they should be provided with environment that supports independency and final outcome is going to be great for the parents and children.
Social learning brings self-understanding, social reflection and feelings of efficiency (Berger, 2002).Children develop self-confidence by looking at examples set by others; reinforcement by parents and teachers in their environment leads them to self-efficacy, the belief that one is effective. Self – efficacy lead individuals to change themselves and their environment.
Evidence suggests that from a social learning theory perspective a child develops through positive and negative interactions with the environment. However, cognitive theory is more concerned with how the child constructs knowledge
Cognitive –developmental theory is developed by Jean Piaget, who believed that children construct their own knowledge through exploration of their environment. According to Piaget, four major stages of development occur, starting in infancy and continuing into late teens. Three stages appropriate to discus for this essay are: sensori-motor, pre-operational, and concrete operations. During these three stages the behavior that leads them to investigate and question world around them changes to logical intelligence from adolescents to adulthood (Berger, 2002).
The first stage is sensori-motor stage and lasts from birth to two years of age. This stage helps infants to understand all its senses. It used to be believed that babies lack ability of thinking and would gain cognition only when they learn the language. Now, we know that babies are aware of the environment around them and are attracted to explore that from the time of their birth.(Dworetzki,1996)
Second stage is pre operational stage and lasts from two to seven years of age. In this stage...