High intakes of fruits and vegetables are protective against many forms of cancers. Vegetarians are less likely to contract cancer of the colon than meat eaters. A vegetarian diet is typically high in fibre, low in saturated fat and includes plenty of fruit and vegetables. Dietary fibre may help to protect against all the ‘Western’ cancers such as cancers of the colon, rectum, prostate, uterus and breast.
We all know that fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and nuts are healthy. There are a number of studies that show that consuming more of these plant-based foods reduces the risk for a long list of chronic maladies (including coronary artery ...view middle of the document...
These vegetables and fruits are grown in different conditions and climates and are therefore harvested for industrial processing.
* PEELING OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES:
METHODS OF PEELING;
* BY ABRASION
* Food is fed onto carborandum rollers or placed into a rotating bowl, which is lined with carborandum (an abrasive material). Abrasive surface removes the skin and it is washed away by a continuous supply of water. Advantages of the method include low energy cost as the process operates at room temperature, low capital cost and a good surface appearance of food.
* LYE PEELING
* Fruit is passed through a 1 to 2% dilute of lye solution (solution of NaOH, KOH etc.). Lye solution is heated to 100 - 120˚C. This process softens skin and skin is then removed by high pressure water sprays.
* FLAME PEELING
* Mostly used for onions. Peeler consists of a conveyor belt which carries and rotates food through a furnace heated to higher than 1000˚C. The outer layer and root hairs are burned off and charred skin is remove by high-pressure water sprays.
* STEAM PEELING
* Fruits and vegetables are fed in batches itno a pressure vessel, which is rotated at 4-6 rev/min.
* KNIFE PEELING
* The stationary bladed are pressed against surface of rotating fruits or vegetables to remove the skin. This method is particularly suitable for citrus where skin is easily removed and there is little damage or loss of fruit.
* FREEZING OF VEGETABLES AND FRUITS:
METHODS OF FREEZING:
* PLATE OR CONTACT FREEZING
* An economical method that minimizes problems of product dehydration, defrosting of equipment and package bulging.
* BLAST FREEZING
* Economical and is capable of accommodating foods of a variety of sizes and shapes. It can however result in excessive dehydration of unpackaged foods if conditioned are not carefully controlled, and this in turn necessitates frequent defrosting of equipment or undesirable bulging of packaged foods which are not confined between rigid surfaces during freezing.
* IMMERSION FREEZING
* It is accomplished when a food product, either packaged or unpackaged is frozen by immersion in or by spraying with a freezant that remains liquid throughout the process.
* BLANCHING: VEGETABLE/FRUIT CANNING
Blanching is the exposure of the vegetables to boiling water or steam for a brief period of time. Blanching is absolutely essential for producing quality frozen vegetables. Blanching also helps to destroy microorganisms on the surface of the vegetables and to make some vegetables such as broccoli and spinach more compact.
* ASEPTIC CANNING
Aseptic canning is the term used here to describe the canning system whereby the food product is sterilised prior to filling in contrast to post-packaging sterilization where the product is heat-sterilised after hermetic sealing.
* BACTERIOLOGICAL CONTROL
The heat preservation of food is an exercise in...