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Varför Bildas Orkaner? Essay

2602 words - 11 pages



1.1 Innehållsförteckning
1.1 Innehållsförteckning 1.2 Inledning 1.3 Definition 1.4 Varför bildas tropiska cykloner? 1.5 Orkanens öga 1.6 Var bildas tropiska cykloner?

i ii ii 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 6 7 9

2.3.1 Australien 2.3.2 Kap Verde 2.3.3 Västra Stilla Havet 2.3.4 Övriga områden
1.7 De tropiska cyklonernas rörelsemönster 1.8 En tropisk cyklons upplösning 1.9 Inverkan på vårt klimat 1.10 1.11

Skadeverkningar Klassificeringar av tropiska cykloner

3.3.1 Saffir-Simpsonskalan



1.2 Inledning
Våran ursprungliga frågeställning var: varför bildas orkaner? Efter närmare ...view middle of the document...

Ett tropiskt lågtryck benämns som en tropisk cyklon när det når orkanstyrka. De tropiska cyklonerna har olika benämningar beroende på var i världen man befinner sig. I östra Stilla Havet och Atlanten benämns de som hurricanes medan de i västra Stilla Havet benämns som taifuner.


2.1 Varför bildas tropiska cykloner?
För att det skall kunna utveckla sig till en tropisk cyklon så är det flera faktorer som måste gå ihop. De viktigaste faktorerna är:
• • • • •

Havsvattentemperaturen måste vara hög, minst 27.5°C Havsvattentemperaturen måste vara konstant ner till ca 50 m djup i havet Hög fuktighet i troposfären ca 5km från mark höjd. Vertikala vindar i hela troposfären max 10 m/s Stor Corioliskraft

Varför är dessa faktorer så viktiga för att en tropisk cyklon ska bildas? Om havstemperaturen inte tillräckligt varmt så finns det inte tillräckligt med vattenånga och möjligheten finns inte då att en tropisk cyklon skall bildas. Som regel så säger man att havsvattentemperaturen skall vara över 26°C mellan latituderna 25°N och 25°S. Ju längre ner vi kommer till havsbotten då sjunker havstemperaturen och då finns det risk för att kraftiga vindar skall föras upp till ytan där havsvattentemperaturen skall vara över 26°C. Om dessa vindar kommer upp till ytan så förstör den utvecklingen utav en bildning av en tropisk cyklon. Det är därför havstemperaturen måste vara konstant ner till ca 50m djup. Om den vertikala vinden är allt för hög i troposfären kommer torr luft att blandas med fuktig luft och det leder till att fuktigheten blir reducerad i troposfären som stör utvecklingen för en

tropisk cyklon. Man säger att om vinden överstiger 10m/s i troposfären så är chansen för att en tropisk cyklon skall bildas är väldigt liten. Corioliskraften kräver att ha en stark rotation, för att vid ekvatorn är Corioliskraften väldigt svag och där kan inte en tropisk cyklon bildas pga av svagheten av Corioliskraften. När väl en tropisk cyklon har bildats så rör den sig i en bana från öst till väst. Detta är pga det atmosfäriska förutsättningarna kommer den att fortsätta tills den når land och dör ut. Den kan även röra sig in över ett område med kallt havsvatten eller rör sig till ett område med stor vertikal vind och då försvagas den. Annars drar den sig åt norra halvklotet och når den subtropiska högtrycksbälterna och omvandlas med tiden till en vanlig mellanbreddscyklon. Medelvärdet för hur länge en tropisk cyklon varar är 9.5 dagar. (SMHI, 2011) & (Allt om vetenskap, 2007) & (Krisinformation, 2012).

2.2 Orkanens öga
Orkanens öga kanske kan vara det mest spektakulära och intressanta fenomenet inom vår planet. Orkanens öga är vanligtvis cirkulär och har en diameter på mellan 8-80 km. det lägsta lufttrycket finns i ögat och kan vara ca 15 % mindre än lufttrycket utanför stormen. Samt att temperaturen kan vara 10-15 °C varmare än omgivningen. Vid ögonväggen är den tropiska cyklonen som starkast. Luften strömmar upp till ögonväggen och där finns det...

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