This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Utilitarianism, Ethical Egoism, And Moral Relativism

1409 words - 6 pages

Utilitarianism, Ethical Egoism, and Moral Relativism
Tom Gardner

Ethics is a branch of philosophy that attempts to answer the questions; what’s right? What’s wrong? And why? Moral relativism is an ethics position that essentially states that people have disagreeing moral beliefs and therefore you must but tolerant of other's morals. This position leads to the problematic realization that if this is the case there can be no objective moral truths nor can there be any universal principles. Act utilitarianism and ethical egoism are two different ethics theories that attempt to respond to this challenge of moral relativism in different ways.
Ethical egoism attempts to respond to the ...view middle of the document...

Three good arguments for the justification of ethical egoism are the human nature, self-knowledge, and intrusion arguments. The human nature argument is just psychological egoism. It argues that humans naturally operate by means of self-interest so why fight it. Ethical egoism will serve as a more intelligent way to support the natural order of things. The self-knowledge argument states that because we have a better knowledge of ourselves then that of others, we are better qualified in doing good actions for ourselves rather than for others. An example of this argument is the fact that a person has better odds of buying a good gift for themselves compared to buying a good gift for another. The intrusion argument simply argues that you have no right to bud into other people’s business and whether you think it is good or not you are simply over stepping your bounds.
The ethics theory utilitarianism, like egoism, is also a form of consequentialism. Yet it attempts to answer the challenge of moral relativism, through consequentialism, in a very different way. Utilitarianism looks at the amount of pleasure present and pain absent in a consequence, also known as its utility. The fundamental rule of utilitarianism is the, “Greatest Happiness Principle.” This principle states that actions are right in proportion to which they create the greatest happiness for most people. So adverse to ethical egoism, this theory gives more merit to the collected effect of action on all (others & the do-err) compared to just the effect on the do-err.
When a utilitarian is deciding on whether an action is good they are calculating the utility (pleasure present & pain absent) of the action, for all, and comparing it to the utility of other possible actions that could be taken at that time. The utility of an action is calculated by examining a number of aspects related to the pleasure involved and it is measured in hedons, a unit of pleasure. These aspects of calculation are the pleasures intensity, duration, closeness to action, purity, certainty, extent of affected people, and multitude of kinds of pleasure produced.
Utilitarianism is justified on a number of beliefs/arguments, the first being that all people only desire happiness, which is just another word for pleasure. In this belief the desire for things like money, virtue, and friends are actual just a means to an end, which is happiness. Utilitarianism is also based on the argument that the feelings of pain and pleasure are in facts natures guide to what ought to be. Finally, utilitarianism is based on the belief that by keeping the happiness of the community in mind you are in fact acting in the best interest of your own happiness. In this belief the community is seen as a fictional body that is made up of the sum of individual interests within that body. The best way to increase the body’s happiness is to increase the majority of individual happiness’s and transversely the happier the body gets the...

Other Papers Like Utilitarianism, Ethical Egoism, and Moral Relativism

Ethical and Moral Issues Essay

715 words - 3 pages Ethical and Moral issue in Business Carlos Mendoza MMGT/216 April 21, 2013 Sandy J Miniz Ethical and Moral issues in Business Ethical issues and Moral issues are completely different and it has different values. Morals are more of a motivational word based on ideas and if you are right are wrong. You give yourself a certain expectation and nothing can change that. This is standards that are set by you in order to have a great career in

Ethical And Moral Issues In Business

507 words - 3 pages Ethical and Moral Issues in Business In today’s business environment employees and manager feel pressure to compromise his or her ethical and moral beliefs. In industry, businesses are encountering issues that are wide spread throughout the industry. On the company side managers are dealing with company specific issues. What are some of the common ethical problems businesses are dealing with today? Knowing the difference between ethical and

Ethical and Moral Issues in Business

639 words - 3 pages Ethical and Moral Issues in Business Barbara Douglass MGT/216 February 5, 2011 Brigitte Culberson-Austin Ethical and Moral Issues in Business Ethical and moral issues have been an issue since the dawn of civilization. It has never been more important than how business deals with these issues. Ethics and moral behavior is essential to any successful business and its environment. Morals and ethics are two separate entities

Ethical and Moral Issues in Business

946 words - 4 pages Ethical and Moral Issues in Business University of Phoenix Organizational Ethics and Social Responsibility MGT/216 Ethical and Moral Issues in Business Organizations promoting ethical operations while allowing employees to retain their moral compass will proactively solve issues and maintain successful operations even in times of turmoil. Individual or company values motivate effort and influence performance. Employee motivation

Moral and Ethical Issues in Business

781 words - 4 pages Ethical and Moral Issues in Business Michelle Ayuso Wienke MGT 216 August 8, 2011 Ethical and Moral Issues in Business In business today ethical and moral issues are very common. These types of issues are frowned upon and in some cases have extreme consequences but, they are still happening in businesses everywhere. Morals and moral issues can be difficult. Everyone has different morals and values that influence the decisions they make

Ethical and Moral Issues in Business

534 words - 3 pages Ethical and Moral Issues in Business By Lisa Battiato MGT/216 March 18, 2011 Professor Laura Brodkey-Scott Ethical and Moral Issues in Business When it comes to understanding the concepts of ethics and morality it can easily become confusing to many. It is perceived as personal values and systematic beliefs. We all struggle with the image of what is right and what is wrong however, when it comes to ethics imposes as to how one applies

'Evaluating Utilitarianism' - What Are The Main Features Of Utilitarianism As An Ethical Theory? Examine And Consider Criticisms That Have Been Made Against Utilitarianism

2266 words - 10 pages What are the main features of Utilitarianism as an ethical theory? (10 marks)Examine and consider criticisms that have been made against Utilitarianism. (10 marks)Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that pivots around the belief that morality should be judged by consequence and the way in which an action can be deemed moral or immoral, depends upon the number to which it brings the greatest happiness. A decision can be defined as ethically

Physician-Assisted Suicide And Euthanasia Are Moral And Ethical

1638 words - 7 pages Euthanasia is Moral and Ethical        There has been much debate in recent American society over the legality and morality of a patients right-to-die.  Current legal statue prohibits any form of euthanasia, however, there are many moral and ethical dilemmas concerning the controversy.  For the purposes of this essay, I will define euthanasia as the implementation of a decision that a person's life will come to an

What Is the Ethical Issue or Problem? Identify the Issue Succinctly. | |Moral Agent Is a Corrections Officer with the Ethical Dilemma of a Recommendation for the Husband Who Is Convicted of a 3rd...

1466 words - 6 pages | |the greatest benefit. | |alternative. (utilitarianism) | | | Ethical Decision Making |Choose to proceed with either Alternative A or Alternative B and explain the reasons for your decision. | |I recommend that the moral agent report this conduct to the appointment panel. This

Business Ethics Review

540 words - 3 pages protect those rights. Adherent: Robert Nozick • Know ethical egoism Everyhting is based on self-interest. • Who are the creators of utilitarianism theory? Jeremy Benthem and John Stuart Mill • Know moral relativism (very similar to utilitarianism) Time & place ethics. No absolute rules. The situation dictates and justifies the actions taken. Week 3 • Know Carr and Drucker perspectives (numerous questions on them) • Drucker's prospective: A) No

Business Ethics and Moral Philosophy

1297 words - 6 pages superior wants you to carry out some responsibility, and your workgroup thinks this is unfair? What if some personal role conflicts with a work role? (Others roles include: student, parent, child, organization member, etc.) Moral Philosophy Perspectives 1. Teleology — egoism - enlightened egoism - utilitarianism 2. Deontology 3. Relativist Perspective 4. Virtue Ethics I. Teleology — consequences

Related Essays

Egoism And Utilitarianism Essay

1168 words - 5 pages To Treat or Not To Treat To treat or not to treat, that is the question? What would you do? How does the subject of cancer treatment apply to the moral theories of Egoism and Utilitarianism? Which theory best addresses this problem? I would assert Egoism best handles the dilemmas undressed by this ethical scenario. Egoism is a normative ethical theory that contends we act morally when in any given situation the right thing to do will be

Difference Between Moral Absolutism And Relativism

676 words - 3 pages Explain the difference between moral absolutism and relativism (25) There are two different ways in distinguishing whether something is right or wrong within ethics. Absolutism is a deontological theory, which determines whether an action is intrinsically right or wrong. Whereas relativism is a teleological theory, which determines whether an action is right or wrong based on the outcomes of the action, on its consequences, this is linked

Ethical And Moral Issues Essay

1013 words - 5 pages this dilemma was apply U.S. safety standard to all sales, do not sell product even where there are lower safety standards or none at all. I felt this was in the best intrest of all consumers no matter where they live and this was the best ethical and moral decision. * * According to McGraw-Hill (2009) personal ethics is the generally accepted principles of right and wrong governing the conduct of individuals. Whereas

Ethical And Moral Issues Essay

1316 words - 6 pages Ethical and Moral Issues in Business Chantal A. Belaire University of Phoenix Organizational Ethics and Social Responsibility MGT216 Ricky Lovett November 30, 2010 Ethical and Moral Issues in Business The difference between ethics and morals can seem somewhat unreasonable to many, but there is a basic, although subtle, difference. Morals define personal character, while ethics stress a social system in which those morals are