Students that are in a working-class have the tendency to underachieve in school, in contrast to those students that are middle-class, this is due to external and internal factors. External cultural factors are claimed to be a key cause of social class differences in educational achievement according to various sociologist. These factors consist of Cultural deprivation, cultural capital and material deprivation.
Students from working class backgrounds often experience economic problems (poverty) more so than any other class; this is linked to material deprivation which these pupils are exposed to throughout their time. Being in poverty could entail the students not having enough money to ...view middle of the document...
Theses all have negative impacts on educational achievement. However Wilkinson cannot generalise this to all students in working class, this is because he has only studied a small group and they are all of the same age therefore they’re not appropriate to represent the whole social class.
Cultural deprivation is the way of which there are certain values, attitudes and skills that are needed, in order to succeed throughout primary socialisation in the family. Theorist claim that working class pupils are culturally deprived – not having the cultural equipment that they will need in order to do well in school, therefore they underachieve. Within cultural deprivation there are three aspects: intellectual development, language and attitudes and values.
Douglas has claimed that working class children have lack of educational equipment e.g. toys and books; he believes that this type of equipment would stimulate a child intellectual development. These children will then have difficulty in trying to succeed when starting school without intellectual development. This claim is also supported by sociologist Bernstein and Young as they think that middle class parents are more likely to choose toys that encourage reasoning and skills f0r their children’s intellectual development, as opposed to working class parents.
Bernstein has concluded different social class pupils speak different languages which are labelled restricted and elaborated codes. Bernstein has given theses labels to different social classes. The restricted code is for the working class, as this is the basic, unspoken language; alternatively he has given middle class the elaborated code, as this is the language where everything’s meanings are clearly spelt out. However this then suggests that the working class will be at a disadvantage as at school students are taught with the elaborated code.
The attitudes and values that parents have upon education is key to their child’s educational achievement. Sociologist Feinstein argues that WC parents don’t have a key interest in education and lack importance of it. However he claims that MC value education highly which influences their children to do so too. In addition to this he also claims that WC parents and children have an attitude of fatalism towards their success – having the assumption to fail. WC also only focus on present time orientation...