From Empire to Independence
Colonies became more important for the British mainland economy Colonies experienced agricultural and commercial growth but remained diverse in composition and outlook o Generally adverse to cooperative efforts
The Heritage of War
Most Americans submitted willingly to the English government due to their alliance in French and Indian War o However, American nationalism was building Brutalities of English soldiers heightened sense of separate identity English soldiers were inept at frontier fighting; initial respect for them was lost English disrupted the colonies’ illegal but necessary molasses trade with the French West Indies Writs of ...view middle of the document...
Grenville and Stamp Act
Grenville’s Colonial Policy The new prime minister and first lord of Treasury, George Grenville, was much like the king: industrious, honest, hard-headed o He and king believed in same basic policies: cutting government expenses, reducing national debt, generating more revenue from colonies to pay for defense o Wanted to keep a large army in America to avoid rapid demobilization but too costly o British collection of taxes in America was ineffective: corruption and evasion were rampant o Tightened enforcement in America and established maritime vice-admiralty courts o Under Grenville, salutary neglect ended o Molasses Act of 1733: serious threat to New England, purpose was not to make revenue but to prevent illegal trade. Grenville realized that this would be ruinous so he established Revenue Act of 1764 (Sugar Act) which cut tax amount in half but put new duties on textiles, wine, coffee, indigo, sugar in order to pay for defense expenses. First time taxes were specifically aimed at generating revenue.
The Stamp Act The Sugar Act failed to produce additional revenue. Its administrative costs were four times greater than the revenue it generated. Stamp Acts of 1765 were purposely implemented by Parliament to generate revenue Quartering Act: was another tax that required colonists to supply British troops with provisions; applied mainly to New York which was British force headquarters
The Ideological Response Cumulative effect of Grenville’s measures raised colonial suspicions o Minority “Real Whigs” slowly began to take hold in the colonies Beliefs based on John Locke’s justification of the Glorious Revolution in Two Treatises on Government o It became clear that British troops were stationed in the colonies not to protect them, but to subdue them Policy in England vs. policy in America Among fundamental rights of English people were trial by jury and presumption of innocence but vice-admiralty courts in America excluded juries. English citizens had the right to be taxed only by their elected representatives, unlike those in America Protest in the Colonies “No taxation without representation.” –response to Stamp Acts Ishmam Ahmed; Ishmam.com
Unlike Sugar Act which affected mainly New England, the Stamp Act burdened all colonists who did any kind of business Colonial militants began to call themselves Sons of Liberty and met under “liberty trees” Mid-August 1765, three months before effective date of Stamp Act: revolts occurred o Stamp agents were hounded out of office o Loyalists, who supported Britain, reported violence Americans began shutting off imports and boycotting British goods o Colonial unity was encouraged through revolts and boycotts The Virginia House of Burgesses struck the first blow against the Stamp Act with the Virginia Resolves: a series of resolutions inspired by Patrick Henry, declared that Virginians were entitled to the rights of Englishmen...