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Us City Report

1346 words - 6 pages

Vulnerable Climate

Variable climate and general climate change continues to impact all sectors of the economy, including human health and ecosystems. Dhaka, Bangladesh and Jakarta, Indonesia are two very different megacities but they also share some commonalties in their evolution and current issues with regard to vulnerability of their climates. Flooding, tropical cyclones, and low adaptive capacity threaten their existence. Dhaka is the most vulnerable city in Asia to climate change impacts due to the fact they are poorer and less developed. Jakarta is the second most vulnerable city to climate change impacts, even though it is a more developed country it faces some of the same ...view middle of the document...

According to up to 25% of the population live in various shantytowns along railroads, streams, lakes and ponds. Population density in the slums is 2.5 million per a square mile. The literacy rate was estimated at 62.3% in 2001; in 2010 it was estimated to be 72.7%. This shows that the literacy rate is growing as more efforts are taken to educate the population. Most residents in Dhaka speak Bengali. Jakarta has a population of 9.1 million and another 18 million in the surrounding suburbs. It is the 6th largest city in the world. Population density is 39,735 per square mile. Jakarta is 3 times as dense as the Los Angeles urban area. Dhaka on the other hand is 4 times as dense as Jakarta. Literacy rate in Jakarta is 90.4%, which is much higher then that of Dhaka due to the fact that Jakarta is more developed and their education system is much more developed. The World Bank estimates the annual per capita income to be $550 and $3,000 respectively for Dhaka and Jakarta.
Jakarta contributes about 17% toward the national GDP. Trading, manufacturing, tourism are significant areas for the economy. Manufacturing sector includes automotive, electronics, chemicals and various other industries. Jakarta’s economy is more technical in the fact that they deal with more high-end electronics and manufacturing. According to Price Waterhouse Coopers, Jakarta has an annual GDP of $92 million. PWC estimates Dhaka’s annual GDP to be $78 Million. Dhaka’s economy is manufacturing based primarily on processing and producing leather goods and apparel. A high level of the employment is in the informal sector; this figure is decreasing as the literacy rate in Dhaka increase. Jakarta has a more advanced economy in comparison to Dhaka. The table below shows comparison between the two cities.

Both cities face similar environmental stress issues, such as flooding, slums, deteriorating infrastructure, pollution and lack of resources. Dhaka is worse off due to the fact it’s economy is not as developed as Jakarta’s. Dhaka is known as the rickshaw capital of the world, over 400,000 run each day. These rickshaws contribute to the congestion and pollution in the city. Dhaka has made little effort to improve living conditions that would reduce the environmental stress. Jakarta has developed monorails, railways and has implemented policies such as prohibiting less than three passengers per car on certain city roads. Both cities lack mass transit options inside the main sectors of the cities. Both cities are predominately Muslim. Indonesia is also the most populous Muslim country in the world. Migrants to both cities maintain their ethnic identities and can be seen by the food, music and entertainment in the cities.

The environmental issues faced by both cities have led to increased volatility in climate change. On a climate vulnerability scale (Shown above) of 1-10 Dhaka scores a 9 and Jakarta scores an 8. Dhaka has seen increased warming,...

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