BTEC National Diploma in Health and Social Care
Unit 22: Research Methodology
Task 1: P3
In this assignment I am going to be creating a table comparing the different research methodologies in health and social care.
Research methods are “the various specific tools or ways data can be collected and analysed, e.g. a questionnaire, interview, etc.” (Neville, C, 2007).
Methods | Advantages | Disadvantages | Validity |
Questionnaires are “a series of questions asked to individuals to obtain statistically useful information about a given topic” (Bryant, L, 2014). There are different types of questionnaires that include face to face, phone, post and online. | ...view middle of the document...
| -Participants may respond what the researcher wants them to say rather than what they really feel or think-They can be very time-consuming.-Different researchers may interpret the response of the participants differently.-Participants information may not be truth or not accurate to the real event-Recording what the people are saying may be difficult i.e. note-writing affects flow of conversation and tape recording may put people off.-Interviews may produce too much data which may be not useful (Moonie, Stretch, et al, 2003). | For structured interviews, the validity is not very high because it is not easy to get a great depth of information because there is not much scope for the interviewer to ask highly detailed, complex questions (Bryant, L, 2014). |
Scientific Experiment is widely used to obtain data in biological, psychological and natural science research investigations.The different types of experiments include laboratory experiments, field experiments or clinical trials. | -They produce very reliable data which can be measured by repeating the experiment under the same conditions-The quantitative data obtained can be analysed statistically which makes the researcher able to compare whether differences occur in the data-‘Scientific’ status of experiments gives them a lot of status and credibility (Moonie, Stretch, et al, 2003)-Experiments are objective because procedures are set up in such a way that biases from researcher are not present-It is easier to determine the cause and the effect i.e. researcher are more certain that it was X that affected Y (Stanley, Boswell, et al, 2009). | -They produce data on very specific, narrow topic i.e. the relationship between two variables-Experimenting on human beings in care situations raises difficult ethical issues (Moonie, Stretch, et al, 2003).-Participants usually know that they are in an experiment which may affect the behaviour they produce-It may be time consuming(Stanley, Boswell, et al, 2009). | Validity of experiments are normally high as the variables are controlled except for the variable being tested. |
Observations involves watching people’s behaviour or looking at some other phenomenon. There are different types of observations which include informal and formal observation. | -Observing natural situations gives natural behaviour (valid)-Rich data can be collected (Brain, C, 2000).-Can give an insight into the bigger picture-In can demonstrate sub-groups (University of Surrey, 2014). | -The observer may be biased-There is no control over variables, so it makes it difficult to draw conclusions (Brain, C, 2000).-Requires high level of participation which can cost a lot and take up a lot of time-People might change their behaviour if they know that they are being observed-Researcher might miss something while they are watching and taking notes (University of Surrey, 2014). | Validity is usually very high because people are observed in their natural environment which allows the...