CONCEPTS OF NUTRITIONAL HEALTH P2
A balanced diet means eating a variety of foods in the right proportion, and consuming the right amount of food and drink to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. A balanced diet consists of vitamins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, fats (lipids) and fibre which is also known as roughage.
Carbohydrates are macromolecules which and contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (C,H,O). There are also two types of sugars, sweet soluble and starches which are non-soluble. Sugars can also be single or simple sugars.Carbohydrates can be found in a wide variety of foods such as pasta, wheat and grains, rice, potatoes, fruits and sugars. Carbohydrates are broken down into energy by the digestive system, in the form glucose. Carbohydrates provide energy in our bodies needed for various purposes such as the synthesis of biochemical macromolecules, transportation and muscle concentration.
...view middle of the document...
The eight essential amino acids must be present in the diet as they cannot be synthesized in the body but can modify the eight into twelve non-essential ones.
Fat is good form storage of long term energy. It also cushions and protects vital organs in the body and also provides insulation. There are two types of fats which are known as saturated fats and non-saturated fats. Saturated fats contain one long chain of carbon and hydrogen and unsaturated fats contains a double bond and if only one is present, it is called monounsaturated. If two or more double bonds are present it makes it poly unsaturated. Unsaturated fats contain essential fatty acids that cannot be synthesized by the body so they need to be derived from the food we eat . Plant food sources such as soya contain unsaturated fats and animal’s food sources such as meats are rich in saturated fats and cholesterol. When consumed, the fats are broken down by the digestive system into glycerol and fatty acids.
Water is an essential part of the human body and sixty to seventy percent of the human body is composed of water. Water plays a key role in maintaining a correct concentration of the blood. It also assists in maintaining homeostasis in the body and in removing waste through urine. Water is also needed for the functioning of the cells and to prevent them from shrinking. Adults are recommended to drink two to three litres of fluids per day .Food sources such as soup, ice desserts and fruits for example watermelons or pineapples or juice drinks can be consumed.
Fibre or Roughage is made up of non-starch polysaccharides and is essential for a balanced diet and it prevents bowl caner and also constipation. It can be obtained from plant based foods such as fresh fruits, vegetables, cereals and whole grains. Fruit and vegetables have cell walls which contains cellulose which we cannot digest