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Unit 1 P2 Essay

4851 words - 20 pages

BTEC National 90 Credits/ Diploma in Health and Social Care

Level 3

Unit 8: Psychological Perspectives for
Health and Social Care

Assignment Workbook 2013-2014


Unit 8: Psychological Perspectives for
Health and Social Care

Overview of the unit
This unit highlights the different psychological perspectives and encourages learners to apply these approaches to the study of health and social care. The value of psychological studies to the understanding of health and social care will also be examined.

Learners will initially consider the meaning of the term ‘theories’ in the context of psychology, and will begin to appreciate the diversity of psychological ...view middle of the document...

The therapy and counselling centre has a number of psychologists who practice psychology from different perspectives.Tulin has been wetting her bed consistently for about six months. Mrs Ukuser took Tulin to see the local GP but the problem has persisted. Mrs Ukuser is anxious to help her daughter; as Tulin has become withdrawn, isolating herself in her room, Tulin’s self-esteem is low and she has started to dress in baggy clothing. On her arrival at the therapy and counselling centre, Mrs Ukuser books Tulin in to see six different psychologists.This unit is split into 3 tasks:- |

P1: Explain key points of the following principal psychological perspectives
In this assignment there will be an explanation on the key pinots of the following principal psychological perspectives.

Behaviourist perspective: Behaviorist psychologists explain all human behavior as resulting from experience. Two key thinkers associated with this perspective are Pavlov (classical conditioning) and skinner (operant conditioning). Although these two theories believed that different processes were involved, they both explained all types of behavior as being the result of learning-everything from shyness to aggression, from happiness to depression. This is quite different from, say the psychodynamic or biological approaches.

The first theory of learning is called classical conditioning. This theory was developed by a Russian physiologist called Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). He was working with dogs to investigate their digestive system. The dogs were attached to a harness, as shown opposite, and Pavlov attached monitors to their stomach and mouths so he could measure the rate of salivation (production of saliva).

One day he noticed that a dog began to salivate when the laboratory assistant entered the room with a bowl of food, but before it had actually tasted the food. Since salivation is a reflex response (which until then was thought to be produced only as a result of food touching the tongue), this seemed unusual. Pavlov speculated that the dog was salivating because it had learned to associate the laboratory assistant with food. He then developed his theory in the following way.

This type of learning is associated with the theories of Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-1990). Skinner was an American psychologist who worked mostly with rats and pigeons, to discover some of the key principles of learning new behaviors. He used a very famous device, called a Skinner box, illustrated below. The box contains a level which, when pressed, releases a food pellet into the box, thus reinforcing lever-pressing behavior.

When the rat is first placed the box it will run around, sniff the various items and at some point it will press the lever, releasing a food pellet. After a while, when the rat has repeatedly performed this action, it will learn that this behavior (pressing the lever) is automatically followed by the release of a food pellet (the consequences)....

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