Types Of Research Essay

994 words - 4 pages

The different characteristics of research:
Research May be Applied or Basic
The purpose of applied research is to solve an
immediate, practical problem.
Basic Research (Pure) adds to the existing body of
knowledge; doesn't necessarily provide results of
immediate, practical use.
Research May be Obtrusive or Non-Obtrusive
Obtrusive research - where the researcher introduces
conditions that influence participants. Where the
researcher manipulates the environment.
Non-obtrusive research - where researcher avoids
influencing subjects in any way and tries to be as
inconspicuous as possible.


Four Main Types of Research
Historical research - describes what ...view middle of the document...

Variable –element or characteristic being studied
Parameter-element that remains unchanged (age, number
of subjects)


Evaluation of Sources
Primary sources-original or first hand account of event
or experience, persons involved, documents, records
or relics
Secondary sources-an account that is at least once
-persons not involved directly with an event
but has close knowledge (parents, relatives)
External Criticism -evaluates the validity of the
-who, when, where it was produced
-is the document genuine, authentic
-status of author (primary or secondary?)
Internal Criticism-evaluates the meaning, accuracy and
trustworthiness of the content (comes after external
• Both external and internal criticism are important to
establish validity.


Sampling Terms and Procedures
Population-inclusive group defined by researcher
Sample-representative subset of population
-should contain essential elements of population
Random Sampling-process of sampling which assures
that any subject in the population has an equal
probability of being in the sample
Systematic counting-uses list to choose every nth person
from the population
Stratified Random-used when researcher believes the
population has distinct subgroups
Ex: population has 45% men, then we make sure
sample is 45% men


Variables and Limitations
Independent Variable-experimental or treatment variable
(it is the cause)
-what we are studying
-it is what we are manipulating in our study
Dependent Variable-is what is measured to assess the
effects of the independent variable
-it is thought to be dependant on the
independent variable
Delimitations-choices the experimenter makes to affect a
workable research problem
Ex: You delimit the number of subjects or the time
Limitations-the conditions or influences that either
cannot be controlled or are the results of the
delimitations imposed
-limitations are beyond the control of the researcher
and may place restrictions on the study


Experimental Research Designs
Pretest-Posttest Design
Pretest treatment posttest
Posttest Only Control Group Design-weak due to lack of
control sampling through a pretest

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