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Tratamientos Termicos Essay

4276 words - 18 pages

Universidad Simón Bolívar
Departamento de Ciencias de los Materiales
Laboratorio de Materiales II (MT-2582)


Grupo 6
- Lombardi, Bárbara #01 34054
- León, Emilio # 02 35086

Sartenejas, 11 de marzo de 2008

|Resumen | |
|I. Introducción |3 |
|II. Marco Teórico ...view middle of the document...

Se observó y estudió la microestructura obtenida después de aplicado el tratamiento térmico a cada probeta.
Para conocer la dureza y la templabilidad de las muestras, nos valemos de un ensayo de Jominy en la muestra de acero 1045. A cada una de estas probetas se les realizó ensayo de dureza mediante las escalas Rockwell C y Rockwell B, de acuerdo el caso de tratamiento térmico.
La velocidad de enfriamiento es directamente proporcional a la dureza, es por esto que el templado en salmuera arroja mayor dureza (688 Brinnel) y el recocido la menor (171Brinnel). Así mismo se verificó este resultado en el ensayo Jominy de templabilidad donde el extremo templado obtuvo la mayor dureza y el extremo normalizado la menor.


El acero es una aleación de hierro y carbono que contiene otros elementos de aleación, los cuales le confieren propiedades mecánicas especificas para su utilización en la industria metalmecánica.

El tratamiento térmico en el material es uno de los pasos fundamentales para que pueda alcanzar las propiedades mecánicas para las cuales está creado. Este tipo de procesos consisten en el calentamiento y enfriamiento de un metal en su estado sólido para cambiar sus propiedades físicas. Con el tratamiento térmico adecuado se pueden reducir los esfuerzos internos, el tamaño del grano, incrementar la tenacidad o producir una superficie dura. La clave de los tratamientos térmicos consiste en las reacciones que se producen en el material, tanto en los aceros como en las aleaciones no férreas, y ocurren durante el proceso de calentamiento y enfriamiento de las piezas, según el tiempo establecido por las pautas dadas por el profesor durante la práctica. En esta experiencia se busca estudiar la influencia en las propiedades y las microestructuras de un acero, bajo la aplicación de distintos tratamientos térmicos.

Se conoce como tratamiento térmico el proceso al que se someten los metales con el fin de mejorar sus propiedades mecánicas, especialmente la dureza. Los materiales a los que se aplica el tratamiento térmico son, básicamente, el acero y la fundición, formados por hierro y carbono, en esta práctica estudiamos el tratamiento térmico aplicado al acero 1045. Las propiedades mecánicas de los aceros, residen en la composición química de la aleación que los forma y el tipo de tratamiento térmico, los cuales están diseñados para proporcionar una distribución óptima de dos o más fases en la microestructura, conservando la misma composición química, a esta propiedad se le conoce como polimorfismo.


2.1 Aceros
2.1.1 Acero 1045 (0,45% C y 0,65% Mn)
Acero de medio carbono, de uso general para la construcción de todo tipo de piezas mecánicas como ejes, motores eléctricos, cuñas, martillos, chavetas, etc. En plancha se utiliza donde hay mayor resistencia a ruptura y abrasión. (1)


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