Nowadays, whether a leader is charismatic enough is based on his leadership style. A person with a high leading ability will be valuable to the corporation. Most of corporations prefer employees who have a high level of leading ability. It is very crucial to choose leaderships because the corporations’ cultures, productivity, effectiveness and loyalty of employees are all rely on the leader and his leadership. There are two leadership theories that are transactional leadership and transformational leadership. Most of researches have discussed the definitions, factors, and frameworks of these theories, however, as for the contrasting evaluation of transformational leadership, it has been ...view middle of the document...
As for management by-exception, there are two dimensions that are active and passive. Northhouse (2015) states that active management by exception leaders supervise followers carefully and then take corrective actions while leaders in passive style only intervene when there are problem.
Transactional leadership is a very simple leadership style that is easy to follow (Travis, n.d.) since subordinates are just motivated by the rewards and follow the given instructions. However, this leadership results in a rigidity situation and leaders are resistant to change (Benjamin, n.d.). In this situation, they prefer giving direct instructions than sharing ideas with followers; hence, there are fewer interactions between leaders and followers.
Unlike transactional leadership, transformational leadership is conclude by Bass (1985) as a process that leaders satisfy followers’ needs, motivate them and try to help them reach their potential. This makes followers do more than they are expected (as cited in Northouse, 2015), while House (1976) published a charismatic leadership theory in order to describe a person who has special personality characteristic and act unique, which effects on followers’ performance (as cited in Northouse, 2015). Sa`enz, 2011 says that leaders with charisma are respected, trusted, and admired, and are perceived to have extraordinary capabilities, persistence, and determination (as cited in Slåtten & Mehmetoglu, 2014).
Bass (1985) mentions that four behavioral components are involved in transformational leadership, which are idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration (as cited in Northouse, 2015). These four dimensions are unique but interrelated (Rothfelder et al, 2013). The first dimension (idealize influence) focuses on how leaders act as charismatic role models, that subordinates want to emulate (Slåtten & Mehmetoglu, 2014). The second dimension is inspirational motivation, which refers to leaders who are able to inspire followers through motivation to become committed to and make effort to accomplish the goals (Northouse, 2015; Slåtten & Mehmetoglu, 2014). The third dimension is intellectual stimulation, which means that leaders should promote followers’ creativity and stimulate them to be innovative through challenging (Northouse, 2015; Slåtten & Mehmetoglu, 2014). Individualized consideration is the last dimension of transformational leadership, it focuses on the degree to which leaders develop and build relationship with the followers and act as coaches to help followers to become actualize (Northouse, 2015; Slåtten & Mehmetoglu, 2014).
In general, transformational leadership has been applied extensively in organizations and it can improve the efficiency of leadership and motivate follower in order to ge a higher employee job satisfaction and productivity.
2. Contrasting evaluations about transformational leadership