RUNNING HEAD: LEININGER’S THEORY OF CULTURE CARE
Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality
University of Virginia
Theoretical Foundation of Nursing
The Cultural Care Diversity and Universality Theory provides a conceptual framework to discover and explain diversities and similarities of care practices, within a cultures context. The theory is highly complex, and has many levels of scope, in relation to human cultures and nursing worldwide. Culture care is applicable to any culture and many diverse settings. The theory is accessible as a guide to research and can lead to empirical precision. The Sunrise Enabler provides a “visual map” that ...view middle of the document...
For this reason, when the nurses approach a diverse patient in a clinical setting, they are often not capable of providing culturally congruent care (Giger & Davidhizar, 1999).
The Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, developed by Leininger, is discussed in this paper as it relates to APRNs providing culturally and linguistically competent care to their patients of diverse ethnic background.
Transcultural nursing theories, applied to patients from different cultures, are comparatively new. In the mid-1960s Leininger founded the field of transcultural nursing, by merging her extensive background in nursing and anthropology. The theory came about after World War II, a time when numerous immigrants and refugees were coming to the United States and the world was becoming more multicultural (Parker, 2006). Leininger identified a deficit in nursing, the lack of cultural knowledge, and developed the theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Universality. Her theory was the first extensive work to demonstrate in depth research, education and practice, the indispensable need for cultural caring in nursing and healthcare (Parker, 2006).
A key concept in the theory is the importance of human care. Leininger defined care “as those assistive, supportive and enabling experiences or ideas towards others with evident or anticipated needs to ameliorate or improve human condition. Caring refers to those actions, attitudes, and practices to assist of help others toward healing and wellbeing” (Leininger & McFarland, 2006, p.12). Leininger views care as the essence of nursing, and further postulates that caring can exist without curing, but curing can not exist without caring. In addition, Leininger describes culture as a pattern of life that individuals and groups of people hold and transmit through values, beliefs, norms, practices and patterns (Leininger & McFarland, 2006). In the theory these two concepts are incorporated to generate “culture care,” which she defines as “predicted to be a powerful theoretical construct believed essential to human health, wellbeing, and survival” (Leininger & McFarland, 2006, p. 4). The purpose of culture care, as stated by Leininger is to “discover, document, know, and explain the interdependence of care and culture phenomena with differences and similarities between and among cultures” (Leininger & McFarland, 2006, p. 4).
The theory draws attention to a new perspective in nursing, by viewing the human being within their multicultural dimension, taking into consideration their diversities (differences) and universalities (commonalities). Lininger’s theory focuses on the use of culturally congruent care, by understanding the person’s cultural values, beliefs, and practices that enable them to maintain and/or restore health and wellbeing (Leininger & McFarland, 2006). In applying the theory, one can use it for any person, from the typical American Caucasians in ones neighborhood to the...