There are several ways to go about training and development. I will Identify the most common and explain. The most are informal, formal, self-directed, cross-training and job rotation.
Informal training and development is rather casual and incidental. Typically, there are no specified training goals as such, nor are their ways to evaluate if the training actually accomplished these goals or not. This type of training and development occurs so naturally that many people probably aren't aware that they're in a training experience at all. Probably the most prominent form of informal training is learning from experience on the job.
Formal, Systematic Training and Development involves ...view middle of the document...
Other-directed, formal training includes where someone other than the learner specifies the training goals will be met in training, how those goals will be met and how evaluation will occur to verify that the goals were met. This form of learning is probably the most recognized because it includes the approach to learning as used in universities, colleges and training centers. This form of learning typically grants diplomas and certificates. Note that this form of training, although readily available in universities, etc., is usually somewhat "generic", that is, the program is geared to accommodate the needs of the most learners and not be customized to any one learner.
Another form of "other-directed', formal training is employee development plans. The plans identify performance goals, how the goals will be reached, by when and who will verify their accomplishment.
Cross training is not about sending people to work in another department at a moment's notice. This has to be an effective planned process. Employees must "buy" into the idea, be encouraged to give feedback and make suggestions for improvement. They become "partners". Departmental communications meetings can be used to share lessons learned. When employees think "the grass is greener on the other side of the lawn" they soon realize their mistake after exposure to other departments. They return to their job with a better attitude.
Cross training can be used to "shake up" supervisors or employees who have lapsed into poor performance. Upon being moved to a different position or department, albeit temporarily, they hear "warning bells", shape up and usually return to their positions as exemplary performers.
Depending on the budget at hand and the objectives to be achieved, the time for cross training can vary from one day to a week or more. Details must be coordinated with the "receiving" department head. The trainee is incorporated within the department's activities for the duration of the cross training (briefings, meetings, or obligations).
A more sophisticated form of cross training is job rotation, which usually involves extended periods (from one month to six months). With job rotation, the employee's role is of a different nature. He is not considered as trainee, but is responsible over certain job functions, for which he has to prove himself.
Both cross-training and job rotation create a team of workers who are more knowledgeable, can easily replace each other when needed and who gain new confidence regarding their professional expertise. These two techniques lead to great motivation throughout the company.
Many managers, including human resources directors, mistakenly believe that employee motivation can be won through monetary rewards or other perks. They learn soon enough that such perks are taken for granted and that money is not the key to employee motivation. A professional and unified management, in a good work environment, is the basis on which to build...