This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Tracheostomy Suctioning Essay

4166 words - 17 pages

Claudine Billau
The formation of a tracheostomy significantly alters the patient’s respiratory
physiology. In bypassing the upper respiratory tract, the patient is more
susceptible to changes in humidity and there is a consequential change in the
function of the respiratory mucosa. Understanding these changes is fundamental to managing these patients effectively (see Chapter 1, Anatomy and
Physiology of the Respiratory Tract).
The upper respiratory system: the nose, pharynx, larynx and the trachea
(Fig. 1), normally provides an effective system for conditioning inspired
gases. As well as acting as a filter for foreign particles and ...view middle of the document...

At this point the inspired gasesare said to have reached alveolar conditions. This point is known as the
Isothermic Saturation Boundary (ISB).3
Under normal conditions this point
is approximately 5 cm below the carina. This point remains relatively constant, even with the extremes of environmental conditions.3,4 However as the
result of disease processes, or in the presence of a tracheostomy the ISB can
be shifted downwards. This places the burden of heat and moisture exchange
upon the lower respiratory tract, a job to which it is poorly suited. This burden is further increased by the delivery of cold, anhydrous medical gases, such
as oxygen.2–4 The loss of heat and moisture from the respiratory mucosa has
the potential to lead to damage of the respiratory epithelium itself.5
Humidity is the amount of water vapour transported by air or other gases;
it can be either absolute or relative. Absolute Humidity (AH), is the mass of
water held by a volume of gas, where as Relative Humidity (RH) describes, as
a percentage, the water vapour content compared to the maximum water
vapour that could be held at that given temperature. When the water content
is at its maximum, at a given temperature, the gas is saturated.6
This occurs
Vocal cords
Fig. 1: Respiratory anatomy (courtesy of Mallinckrodt).under normal conditions at the ISB. Appropriate conditioning of inspired
gases is vital to facilitate oxygen exchange in the alveoli.
On expiration, heat is transferred from the alveolar gas at 37C and 100% RH
to the cooler upper respiratory mucosa. Air leaves the nose at approximately
32C on expiration. As gases cool, their capacity to hold water vapour is
reduced. It is at this point that condensation occurs. This in turns leads to a
further cooling of the gases due to loss of latent heat of vaporisation.7
heat is then transferred back into the respiratory mucosa. The mucosa is thus
rewarmed and rehydrated (see Figure 2). The maintenance of this warm and
moist environment ensures optimal function of the respiratory tract and its
epithelium. The nose and upper respiratory tract act as a counter current heat
and moisture exchanger (HME), ensuring that inspired gases are conditioned
and cleaned, while retaining heat and moisture on expiration.8
of the correct balance between temperature and relative humidity in the
upper airway is important to maintain effective function.9
In the presence of a tracheostomy the upper respiratory tract is bypassed.
This can lead to a shift in the ISB further down the respiratory tract. If the
patient is receiving supplementary oxygen therapy the demands on the
Fig. 2: Human air conditioning (courtesy of Tyco).natural heat/moisture exchange system are further increased. In order to prevent the adverse effects of under...

Other Papers Like Tracheostomy Suctioning

Holidays In Albania Essay

1636 words - 7 pages Have you ever thought about having exciting and incredibly cheap vacations? Albania might be the right choice. According to My Travel Guide, Albania is ranked the fourth among ten places worth visiting in Eastern Europe (“Top 10 Eastern European Destinations”). One can encounter three kinds of vacations in this Mediterranean country: winter, summer, and cultural. The ideal places to spend your winter vacations are the Albanian Alps. They are

A Heart Of Darkness Essay

1748 words - 7 pages In this short story, there are frequent significant subject and ideas that make the story, "A Heart of Darkness," by Joseph Conrad, and haunting novel. The main theme is absolute white power over the natives. The theme validates the corruption, and the dependence caused by the white people as they took over the Congo. White men were giving all the power; they had no self-control, and in the end they did not use wisely. The white men became

The Aspects Of Vulnerability Among The Exploited In Medical Research

2287 words - 10 pages Essentially, everyone is in some state of vulnerability. However, some of us are more susceptible to harm due to our vulnerabilities. The susceptible are the individuals with the greatest risk. These individuals risk the loss of their autonomy, and maybe even their lives. Vulnerable populations can be found in every subset of society. However, as previously mentioned, there are some vulnerable populations that are at an even greater risk than

The Hitchhiker’S Guide To The Galaxy

1171 words - 5 pages The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy As the human race makes life-changing discoveries, it is made apparent that there is always more to learn as the universe, instead of becoming familiar, is becoming absurd. The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, written by Douglas Adams, as well as the 2005 film adaption, portrays absurdity to be an all-encompassing system in the universe. Through the introduction and attempt to understand lack of reason, the

The Ford Motor Company Wage Increase Of 1914 And The Theory Of Incentives And Efficiency Wages

1252 words - 6 pages ‘It’s not the employer who pays the wages. Employers only handle the money. It is the customer who pays the wages’ (Henry Ford, cited in Johnson and Weinstein 2004, p. 2). When the Ford Motor Company announced that it would more than double the wages of its workers in January 1914 to a ‘five-dollar day’ minimum, was this a contradiction to Henry Ford’s statement? If customers are actually the ultimate payers of wages, then more than

Historical Analysis Of The Economical Breakthroughs Of The Industrial Revolution

1396 words - 6 pages A Historical Analysis of the Economical Breakthroughs of the Industrial Revolution During the Industrial Revolution, many elements of society experienced huge breakthroughs that would change the way they functioned forever. Economics were definitely one of them. With many new inventions and many factories appearing, many, many, more resources were being created than ever before. Also, all of the revenue from these resources was being given to

Leadership Portrayed in Monologue from Shakespeare’s Henry V

1214 words - 5 pages Leadership is defined as a socially constructed process and which also affect organizational future outcomes. Leader is someone at high position who have overall duty for an organization, she or he decide what to do and the way how to achieve it. (Carter and Greer, 2013)The role of leader is extremely important for an organization, leader use their own power to influence the followers though many different ways such as motivation in order to

Cuba Civil Rights

1906 words - 8 pages Picture a country that has limits on how much you can make random government imprisonments and more what do you do. That is the situation for the eleven million seventy-five thousand two hundred forty-four people of Cuba since the takeover of Fidel Castro. The US is opposed to Castro taking control of Cuba. Castro managed to ease the United States nerves when he said that Cuba was against all forms of communism. According to Lana Wylie the Union

US Freight System

1273 words - 6 pages General Environment Each American requires the movement of approximately 40 tons of freight per year across the freight network. This includes everything from shirts to lawn mower to orange juice. • As the U.S. population expands, the U.S. freight system will be called upon to meet the demands of a larger population • Between 2010 and 2035, the system will experience a 22 percent increase in the total amount of tonnage it moves • By 2050, with

Democratic Peace Theory

1852 words - 8 pages Intro: US Presidents have made it a goal during their term(s) in office to establish a good relationship with foreign countries and even try to improve upon existing connections with our allies. Some believe it is to prevent conflicts between the countries while others dispute that it is a threat assessment by the United States to pick and choose their friends and enemies. Preventing conflict between two democracies or countries that practice

Booker T. Washington

1621 words - 7 pages “Success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome” –Booker T. Washing. Booker Taliaferro Washington was born in Hale’s Ford, Virginia on April 5th, 1856 to Jane Burroughs and an unknown White man. Washington was married three times. His first wife was Fannie N. Smith from Malden, West Virginia. Booker and Fannie were married in the summer of 1882 and had one child

Related Essays

Managing Client With Cerebrovascular Disease Essay

3878 words - 16 pages stable. Neuro Intensive Care Unit – POD4 - 1/11/12 A review overnight has shown that patient was relatively stable maintaining a GCS of E1V1M4 and intracranial pressure below 20 at all times. A decision was made to stop Atracurium Besylate but to keep the Propofol, intending to lower the dose the day after. Doctors updated the family on patient’s progress and nursing management now includes frequent suctioning as patient seem to be producing

Freedom And Responsibility Essay

2141 words - 9 pages Built within the Constitution of the United States are specifically defined freedoms that are guaranteed to all citizens. Conversely, with every constitutional freedom there comes a corresponding responsibility. On September 25, 1789, the state legislature’s twelve proposed amendments were transmitted by congress, the first two dealing with congressional representation and congressional pay. The following numbers three through twelve were

Hate Crime Laws Essay

2348 words - 10 pages On June 7, 1998, 49-year-old James Byrd Jr. of Texas accepted a ride from three white men, who then beat him severely, urinated on him, chained him by his ankles to the back of their pick-up truck, dragged him for three miles into the countryside, and dumped his corpse in front of an African-American cemetery (Graczyk). A little over a year later, a jury sentenced ring leader John King to death by lethal injection (“Man Executed for Dragging

Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study Conceptualization And Treatment Plan

2140 words - 9 pages Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study of Sarah: A Conceptualization and Treatment Plan Rational emotive behavior therapy, REBT, was developed by Albert Ellis and holds the central belief that the events in our lives do not cause our disturbances but that they are instead caused by our view of the events (Murdock, 2009). Murdock (2009) states that “people are seen as responsible for their behavior” (p. 279) but, because they are