Chapter - 1
Concept of Quality and TQM
Dr. Shyamal Gomes
“Quality is not an art, it is a habit” - Aristotle
Introduction: Till 300 years ago, people used the power of their own muscles, animals or the force of wind and flowing water to do all works. With the invention of the ‘steam engine’ they got a powerful method of running their machines. This provided a tremendous boost to Industry. Goods started getting produced in larger quantities using machines. This led to the beginning of the factory system. The significant change from handmade goods to machine-made goods, which began in Britain in 18th century, is known as the Industrial Revolution. Why it was called Revolution? Because ...view middle of the document...
They observed hard working ability and bringing new-new technologies are not enough need a culture change towards “ TOTAL COMMITMENT and TOTAL IMPROVEMENT”. They also felled that human resource of Japan is highest important and precious but they need more training for continuous development. Fortunately Japan called / invited American Experts like Edward Deming, Joseph M.Juran and others in 1950s and early 1960s. Therefore, Japanese learnt from the seed courses of Dr. E. Deming's on statistical methods for quality control and Dr. J. Juran's courses on Quality Management. With zeal for learning and self- sufficiency, they vigorously promoted quality education by
local experts across their country. It began with massive education of engineers, and then top and middle managers, supervisory levels. In 1960, The concept of ‘Zero – defects’ gained favour. Philip Crosby, who was the champion of Zero – defects concept focused on employee’s motivation and awareness. The first quality control circles were formed in Japan for the purpose of quality improvement by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa in 1961.
In early 70s and 80s U.S Managers were frequent troops to Japan to learn the Japanese miracles. A quality success began to occur in U.S products and services. In 1980, the concept of TQM was being publicized. Massaki Imai, the chairman of the Cambridge Corporation, an international management consultancy firm based in Tokyo, propound the useful and vibrant technique “Kaizen” (Continuous Improvement) in 1986. The great Economic Liberalization – world wide in 1991, bound to think every business organization for the first time that the best option is “QUALITY” for survive and sustain in highly competitive environment. Basically the quality aspects were first emphasized in the auto industries. Saturn Automobile ranked first in customer satisfaction, in 1996. In addition, ISO – 9000 ( a series of standards) became the model for a quality management system world wide, ISO – 14000 was approved as the world wide model for Environment Management system, this time. Quality assurance begins as a priority for engineers and managers. In quality movement world wide the Globalization took an important role in 2000. Due to transmission to open economy, a domestic and international competition starts. Gradually TQM considered as the ultimatum for continuous improvement and sustainable growth in present day business. However, in 21st century, high growth of economy- the new millennium brought about increased emphasis on world wide quality and the Internet. Japanese and other worlds business organization started not only for quality product and services for External customer satisfaction but started satisfying them by trying to achieve the highest business excellence model – Deming Award, Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, CII – EXIM Award and TPM Award and others. Thanks – QUALITY. What is this Quality Then? Quality is an attribute of a product or service that fulfills or...