Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13--15 Years --- Philippines, 2000 and 2003
Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. A disproportionate share of the global tobacco burden falls on developing countries, where an estimated 84% of the world's 1.3 billion current smokers live (1). The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), part of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) initiated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and CDC, was developed to monitor youth tobacco use, attitudes about tobacco, and exposure to tobacco smoke, and has been completed by approximately 1.4 million students in 133 countries (2). A key goal of GTSS is for countries to conduct the GYTS every 4 years. This report presents findings from the GYTS conducted in the Philippines ...view middle of the document...
Public health authorities in the Philippines should evaluate their current tobacco-control programs and enhance or expand them to further reduce youth smoking.
GYTS is a school-based survey that collects data from students aged 13--15 years by using a standardized methodology for constructing the sample frame, selecting participating schools and classes, and processing data. GYTS uses a two-stage, cluster-sample design that produces representative samples of students in grades associated with ages 13--15 years (2). In the Philippines, this age range is covered by the second, third, and fourth years of secondary school; the GYTS sampling frame included all secondary schools containing these grade levels. At the first sampling stage, the probability of selecting a school was proportional to the number of students enrolled in the specified grades. At the second stage, classes within the selected schools were randomly selected. All students attending school in the selected classes on the day the survey was administered were eligible to participate. In 2000, a total of 11,630 students completed the GYTS, and in 2003, a total of 7,478 completed the survey. The school response rate was 90.0% in 2000 and 99.3% in 2003; the student response rates were 88.7% and 85.4%, respectively; and the overall response rates (i.e., school rate multiplied by student rate) were 79.7% and 84.8%, respectively.
This analysis compared the 2000 and 2003 survey results by using several indicators of tobacco use. The indicators included lifetime cigarette smoking, age of initiation of cigarette smoking, current cigarette smoking, current use of other tobacco products, likelihood of never smokers to initiate smoking in the next year, exposure to secondhand smoke, tobacco education, exposure to tobacco images in media and advertising, cessation efforts, and access to tobacco. All differences noted are statistically significant (p