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To What Extent Do Urban Areas Create Their Own Climate (40 Marks)

955 words - 4 pages

To what extent do urban areas create their own climate (40 Marks)
An urban area is the region surrounding a city. Jobs are those in a non-agricultural field, making urban areas very developed causing a high density of human structures such as houses, buildings, and transport links. Urban areas contain microclimates which measures the average weather condition in a small area.
Due to human activity, temperature in an urban area is a fundamental characteristic, as temperature is relatively higher compared to surrounding rural areas, named as an urban heat island. This is due to housing and buildings being constructed close together. The material used for building is non-reflective and ...view middle of the document...

Temperature within an urban area makes a different climate compared to surrounding areas as it is anthropogenically influenced, as human activity has led to more harmful exposures, such as an increase in car ownership as well as more commuting due to globalisation and movement and an increase in tourism, leading to an increased demand in central heating, air conditioning and producing goods within manufacturing.
Winds within urban areas are affected by the surroundings. Tall buildings will disturb the airflow in urban areas and they will deflect and slow down the faster upper-atmosphere winds. Tall buildings will channel the air into canyons between the buildings, this causes winds to increase in speed, known as the Venturi effect where high pressure is formed causing high velocity winds. The tall buildings in an urban area exert a powerful frictional drag on the surrounding air, forming turbulence. On the other hand, with single buildings, air is displaced upwards and around the sides, which forces air downwards on the lee side of the structure, causing a vortex. On the windward side of the structure, the air is pushed against the wall with high pressure increasing with height. Wind in an urban area influences its own climate, as it is different compared to surrounding areas. When high pressure conditions occur in rural areas, wind will move towards the low pressure created in the urban area by the rising convectional heat currents, the air therefore moves from the high pressure in the rural areas to low pressure in the city.

Precipitation rates are also significantly different within rural areas, research shows that rainfall is generally higher within urban areas than surrounding rural areas. A reason for this may be that an urban heat island carries the meaning that temperatures are higher therefore lower pressures will be encouraged to develop above the city...

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