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Tma04 Dse212 Essay

1647 words - 7 pages

Neurons in the central neuron system process information. Neurons are both large and small and many come together to form neural systems. These neural systems will carry out a particular function. The brain and the spinal cord both work together to form the central nervous system. For example in a simple reflex reaction like touching a sharp object on the surface of the skin, all the neurons located to the surface will act as a sensor. These will communicate through the neurons to the brain. When the tissues are damaged, electrical activity occurs in the neurons. The neurons transmit messages through the spinal cord to the brain and routed back to the muscles which will cause the reflex ...view middle of the document...

Some common reasons of behavioural changes are caused by intake of prescription drugs for the treatment of depression and other drugs like cocaine and heroin. Those affected by the Parkinson’s disease have minimised action and motor control. Sufferers of this disease produce less dopamine, a nuerochemical, (Toates, 2007).
“It could be argued that a combination of genes gives an individual a susceptibility to develop depression” (As cited in Toates, 2007, p278). Those individuals who carry the depression genes are more likely to develop it yet if these individuals do not endure any kind of stress they may not develop depression. Similarly if a person does not have the depression genes can develop depression if they undergo high levels of stress and anxiety. Those carrying the depression genes have a different type of communication through the synapses compared to those who don’t have depression genes. It is concluded that depression is developed from a balance of both biological and social factors. They work hand in hand to create depression in an individual, (Toates, 2007).
The control of human behaviour may appear all voluntary from the surface, such as limb movements and speech. In reality, our bodily activities are a combination of both voluntary and involuntary movements. The Somatic nervous system is a part of the nervous system and controls the skeletal muscle; the limbs. The movement of the skeletal muscles are voluntary and the body is aware of the movements occurring or that it is about to occur. The SNS works with the central nervous system and messages are sent down the spinal cord in order for the body to perform a specific action or movement (Toates, 2007). The motor cortex is central in carrying out motor control activity, such as the hand and arm movement and speech performance. Therefore any damage to the motor cortex results in disrupting the control of hand and arm movement and speech. Damage in different parts of the motor cortex will affect the individual differently depending on exactly which region it occurred. Stroke patients lose activity in the brain region which is directly linked to speech and limb activity. This is the reason why stroke patients have loss of speech or lack part of speech and the hand and arm movements are limited or not there at all, (Toates, 2007).
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is involuntary and only affects the internal body. Heart rate, sizes of blood vessels, and producing saliva are controlled by the ANS.The ANS consists of the cardiac muscle, the smooth muscle and hormones. Smooth muscles located in the gut help take the food down but this can be disrupted by an external factor like anxiety. It will cause the gut to tighten leading the individual to experience pain and discomfort. Hormones that function the ANS, adrenalin and noradrenalin work with a supply of blood and travel into passing blood throughout the body .This leads to a faster heart rate (Toates, 2007).
Human behaviour is...

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