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Three Most Pressing Issues In Organizational Behavior And The Practices That Might Be Implemented

2737 words - 11 pages

Three most pressing issues in Organizational Behavior and the practices that might be implemented
Organization behavior is the study of behaviors and attitudes of people in an organization. After all human behaviors and attitudes determine effectiveness of any organization. The approach used in studying OB is the system approach. In other words, this approach interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives. In this paper we propose to study leadership, motivation and organizational ...view middle of the document...

The alternative philosophy of human nature believes that human beings are responsible by nature. They need not be coerced or controlled by the managers to get the best out of them. While some experts consider McGregor’s work as a basic theory of motivation, others feel it is a philosophy of human nature that is more suited to explain leadership rather than basic motivation theories (Montana and Charnov, p.252).
In contemporary Public Administration text books, Taylor appears as an ideal typical management engineer who views workers as machines and reduces all motivation to money. They allude to his man as machine conceptualization with disconcerting moral overtones. His theory focuses on economic man that fails to recognize other aspects of human personality having needs, preferences, attitudes, and commitments. Taylor in contrast to Elton Mayo and other Hawthorne researchers failed to appreciate that social needs can undercut the appeal to economic rewards. The contrast between scientific management of Taylor and the theory of McGregor is even starker. Mc Gregor may be said to have understood the human needs with greater insights just like Maslow, who posited a hierarchy of five human needs – physical, security, social, esteem, and self-actualization. In contrast to McGregor, Taylor is made to appear reductionistic. This comparison is akin to the natural science scholarship model where early theory is seen more primitive than later thoughts (Schachter, p.11-12).
However, it must be acknowledged that Taylor’s theory radically altered the sphere of organized work. The work could now be measured and systematized. It could be expressed and evaluated in more scientific terms. A Taylor-McGregor contrast dichotomizes engineering and psychological motivation approaches. “Political theorist Sheldon Wolin turns this bisection into a battle call: ‘The modern manager…must in defense of “human values” stand ready to resist the changes proposed by the “logicians” of industrial engineering.’ Proscribed are work measurement, pay-for-performance, and standardization. Lauded are psychologically oriented attempts to make work place participation more attractive”(Schachter, p.12).
Taylor set forth his theory in two books (1903 and 1911) and a large number of articles. Many of his applications, according to John B. Miner (2001) have not met the test of time. One that has survived involves breaking down of movements into their component parts and prescribing methods for their execution. It has prospered today in the form of what is known as ‘Industrial Engineering’. “Although time and motion study can be traced to well before Taylor, he and those who worked with him perfected the approach and sold it to the world (Reeves, Duncan and Ginter 2001)” (Miner 127). Taylor’s thoughts were rooted in an industrial era characterized by mass production that relied on an assembly-line approach to manufacturing. In such a system of mass production, efficiency was gained...

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