A Learning Disability (LD) “is a disorder in one or more of basic psychological process
involved in understanding or using the language which may manifest in an imperfect ability to
think, speak, listen, read , write , spell or conduct mathematical calculations” . (Zastrow, &
Kirst-Ashman, 2007) It involves difficulty in processing information and/ or using this
information to communicate. Children with LD currently make up to 6 present of the school-
aged population in the United States and about 40 percent of the children enrolled in the special
education classes suffer from a learning disability (Zastrow, & Kirst-Ashman, 2007)
The diagnosis of LD is usually coming after ...view middle of the document...
Another possible reactions of a child with learning disability is learned helplessness
reaction where children may use the fact they can’t do something to get out of doing other things
they are capable of doing (Zastrow, & Kirst-Ashman) . As a result, many families give up
helping disabled children improving their limited abilities.
Social policies and organizations
One reason for these adverse emotions is the social stigma associated with having a child
with a disability to the extent that many believe that family dysfunctional respond to a disability
and illness are not only related to their own internal structures but also due to an external
stigmatization, and that family’s responses to disabling conditions are colored by the tendency of
the broader social trends to disabilities (Carlson, Sperry, & Lewis, 2005). This required strong
social policies and reforms to help facilitate hardships associated with having a child with LD.
Among this policy was Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, as Amended, 2004. The
original legislation became law in 1975 and was known as The Education for All Handicapped
Students Act (EHA). The Act was renamed The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in
1986 (Guerin, & Male, 2006). The act established the right for all infants, children, and youth
with disabilities preschool through age 21 to receive a free, appropriate public education, and
provide funds to enable public schools to comply with the new law. The amendment in 2004
added individualized transition plans (ITP) for transitioning individuals from secondary school to
adult life or post secondary education (Guerin, & Male, ).The goals of the ITP are to assess the
students’ needs and interests, keep parent/ guardian involve, develop annual goals outlining steps
and skills, put a plan 5 to 7 years before graduation, encourage coordinated efforts between
agencies, specified responsibilities of parents and students, service providers and vocational
education programs, and specify a list of participants that include who is responsible for different
aspects of the process(“Individual Transition Plan ”,n.d) There is also the No Child Left behind Act, 2001 which is required accountability for the academic performance of all school children,
including those with disabilities and called for 100% proficiency in reading and math by the year
2012. The act provide resources for improving teacher and principal quality, facilitate student
academic achievement through the use of technology in schools , and provide resources for
creating safe and drug –free learning environments to all students (Hepworth, Rooney, & Rooney, 2010). The act is also designed to serve delinquent and neglected youth in institutions, day programs, and correctional facilities to assure high academic levels of achievement (Hepworth, Rooney, & Rooney, ).
Today, all school systems have to respond with the concept of inclusion...