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Theories Of Personality Essay

1123 words - 5 pages

* Personality is “an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits”.
* A personality trait is “a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations”.
* Common personality traits include:
* honest
* moody
* Impulsive
* Friendly
* Sum total of the qualities and characteristics of a person as shown in her manner of walking, talking, dressing, and her attitudes, interests, and ways of reacting to other people
* The unique, relatively enduring internal and external aspects of a person’s character that influence behavior in different situations
Theory
* General principle formulated to ...view middle of the document...

* Self-Report or Objective Inventories – involves asking people to report on themselves by answering questions about their behavior and feelings in various situations
Samples of Self-report Inventories
* Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – a comprehensive self report personality test that is focused on assessing psychopathology which are answerable by yes or no
* Guilford-Zimmerman Temperamental Survey – it is used in clinical application and in vocational counseling and placement
* OTHERS: 16 Personality Factors, Edwards Preference Personality Scale
Differences between the Psychometric tests and the Projective tests
PSYCHOMETRIC TEST
* Normative and structured and there is uniformity of procedure in administering and scoring.
* Focused on the measurement of separate traits.
* Highly reliable due to the fact that they have standard norms and scales for effective assessment and analysis.
* The examinee may have a knowledge of what the examiner is after.
* Do not allow a wide variety of subject responses.
* It can be given by a psychologist even without much experience

PROJECTIVE TEST
* Unstructured, designed to be ambiguous and vague so that the subject’s response is determined by internal ways of perceiving.
* Characterized by a global approach to the appraisal of personality
* Less reliable since the interpretation of responses in most of them is dependent on the clinician’s judgment.
* The examinee is not aware of the purpose of the test.
* Permit a variety of responses from the subject and there are no correct or incorrect responses to the tests.
* Should be administered, scored, and interpreted only by experienced and competent or trained psychologists.
Theories of Personality
* The Body Type Theory
* Attitude or Behavioral Type
* Theory Based on Body Chemistry
The Body Type Theory
* William Sheldon
* Related personality with body constitution, health, and vigor
* 3 layers of tissue in the human embryo: the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm
Endomorphy
* the individual is round, heavy, and with a preponderance of visceral development.
* Love pleasure, greedy, sleep soundly, and are comfort-seeking, they are sociable and are greatly interested in seeking affection
Mesomorphy
* the individual is healthy and muscular
* Assertive
* Aggressive
* They love adventure
Ectomorphy
* The individual tend to be tall with a skinny body
* Temperamentally he is idealistic, strict, sensitive and avoids social contacts
Attitude and Behavioral Type
Extrovert
* Men of action, outspoken, and socially oriented
Introvert
* Loners, who look flexible, and...

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