The Theoretical Perspective of the Cognitive Personality Approach
What I as an author am trying to do in this essay is to grab my audiences attention and explain and appeal to them about the theoretical perspective of the Cognitive Personality approach. I provided historical statements, theories, and research to make each individual aspect of the perspective as clear as possible. This essay will consist of the Theoretical perspective of the approach, Theorists who have contributed to this approach, Compare and contrast two theorists perspectives within this approach, Identify and describe measurement and assessment instruments, and Clinical application of the approach.
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Cognitive psychologists study internal processes including perception, attention, language, memory and thinking.
The cognitive perspective applies a nomothetic approach to discover human cognitive processes, but have also adopted idiographic techniques through using case studies (e.g. KF, HM). Typically cognitive psychologists use the laboratory experiment to study behavior. This is because the cognitive approach is a scientific one (Keating). For example, participants will take part in memory tests in strictly controlled conditions. However, the widely used lab experiment can be criticized for lacking ecological validity (a major criticism of cognitive psychology).
Cognitive psychology became of great importance in the mid 1950s. Severalfactors were important in this:
* Dissatisfaction with the behaviorist approach in its simple emphasis on external behavior rather than internal processes.
* The development of better experimental methods.
* Comparison between human and computer processing of information
As its name implies, the cognitive approach deals with mental processes like memory and problem solving. By emphasizing mental processes, it places itself in opposition to behaviorism, which largely ignores mental processes. Yet, in many ways the development of the cognitive approach , in the early decades of the 20th century, is intertwined with the behaviorist approach (Keating). For example, Edwin Tolman, whose work on "cognitive maps" in rats made him a cognitive pioneer, called himself a behaviorist. Similarly, the work of David Krech (aka Ivan Krechevsky) on hypotheses in maze learning was based on behaviorist techniques of observation and measurement.
The core focus of cognitive psychology is on how people acquire, process and store information (Miller). There are numerous practical applications for cognitive research, such as improving memory, increasing decision-making accuracy and structuring educational curricula to enhance learning.
Until the 1950s, behaviorism was the dominant school of thought in psychology. Between 1950 and 1970, the tide began to shift against behavioral psychology to focus on topics such as attention, memory and problem-solving (Miller). Cognitive psychology is often referred to as the cognitive revolution, this period generated considerable research on topics including processing models, cognitive research methods and the first use of the term "cognitive psychology.
Cognitive theories of psychology are focused on internal states, such as motivation, problem solving, decision-making, thinking, and attention. The cognitive approach has many theorists involved who have contributed over the years and developed and influenced the current approach that we look as as cognitive (Keating). Whether they were groundbreaking or influential in a very minute way, none the less, they all contributed to the growth of the psychological concept. Such psychologists who have contributed to this approach were: