LECTURE 2 – POWELL
THE WRITING PROCESS
KINDS OF WRITING/DISCOURSE TYPES: THE BASIC PURPOSES OF WRITING ARE TO INFORM, TO PERSUADE, AND TO ENTERTAIN.
Prose is ordinary written/spoken language without poetic structure. Prose that informs is called exposition/expository writing. Expository writing explains how things work, ideas, how to solve a problem, facts about everyday life, history, controversial issues. Expository writing is constructed LOGICALLY – organized around structures like cause and effect, true and false, less and more, positive and negative, general and specific, sequences or series of steps/procedures, chronology, etc. Ideas in exposition are moved along by ...view middle of the document...
It uses rhetorical and persuasive devices like rhetorical questions and repetition or irony for emphasis at significant points in the argument. It closes with a conclusion which includes a summary of the argument and often a judgement on any problems revealed or possible recommendations. Debates/discussions are also included in this category – the analysis of a moot (subject), using facts, evidence, examples, statistics and opinions from credible sources to support the arguments.
Prose that entertains can be descriptive or narrative. Descriptive character or situation sketches have a heavy emphasis on well chosen details, vocabulary (appropriate and creative use of verbs, adjectives and adverbs), imagery (word pictures), figurative language (comparisons and contrasts), subtlety, suggestion and creativity. Sometimes irony, humour, repetition and other literary devices are used to enhance the effect of the writing upon the reader. Narrative/prose fiction tells a story often with a moral. Novels and short stories fall into this category. The series of events/story line is called the plot contains a development/complication leading to a climax or dramatic high point in the story. Prose fiction usually contains characters in conflict with some personal aspect of their personality (like a character flaw/weakness), or with other people/society in general, or with nature/their physical environment (like a natural disaster). Dialogue is usually used for effect and to reveal information about the situation and characters, and a mood/atmosphere is created to draw the reader in to the story. The problems created by the conflicts have to be resolved, and the reader’s questions/anxiety about how these will be solved/resolved leads to suspense which is a crucial element in novels and short stories. The story typically ends with a resolution that satisfactorily ties up loose ends and may include a lesson learnt/moral.
THE WRITING PROCESS
The development of stages in writing, from the understanding of the task’s requirements to the production of the final paper. The three main stages are usually referred to as: prewriting, writing and rewriting.
Stage 1 – Pre-Writing
• Choosing a topic;
• Understanding the terms in and requirements of the topic;
• Setting the parameters or limitations for the essay;
• Considering purpose and audience;
• Brainstorming ideas relevant to the topic;
• Preparing a valid organizational structure for these ideas; creating an outline.
Stage 2 – Writing – Expository Writing
WRITING THE FIRST DRAFT FROM THE OUTLINE (SEE TEXTBOOK WRITING IN ENGLISH, PP.135 – 178) (UNDER EXAM CONDITIONS, HOWEVER, THIS WILL BE YOUR ONLY DRAFT, SO ALL CORRECTIONS & EDITING WILL HAVE TO BE DONE AT THIS TIME.)
- Make sure every paragraph has a topic sentence, and that each paragraph in the body also has fully explained supporting points, and specific examples and evidence