The Troubled Past Essay

2527 words - 11 pages

The Troubled Past of U.S. African Americans
Annotated Bibliography
Jennette M. Bird
HIS:204 American History 1865-Present
Instructor Bruce Carruthers
January 13th, 2014

The Troubled Past of U.S. African Americans
As we move into the new century, our reliance on the past has never been more apparent to how we should proceed in the future. Our past experiences, in some respects, are still problems in the present. Throughout history, African Americans have struggled with equality. One question that still remains is: How can we (Americans) move forward while incorporating past experiences to overcome this ever pressing issue that has plagued the U.S. for so long? The ...view middle of the document...

There was a large portion of freedmen, especially in New Orleans, who owned property and had participated in the state militia before the American Civil War.
March of 1865, Unionist planter James Madison Wells, who originally was against black suffrage, became governor for Louisiana. As the past Confederate-dominated legislature passed the Black Codes, which restricted the rights of freedmen, Wells started a journey that would allow blacks the right to vote, and would temporarily disfranchise ex-Confederates. To accomplish this, he scheduled a convention for July 30, 1866. The convention was postponed however, because of the New Orleans Massacre that took place that day, in which whites that were armed attacked blacks hosting a parade in honor of the convention. Those attacks resulted in a death toll of 38, of which 34 were black, and the other four were white; and more than 40 other individuals were wounded, most of which were black. President Andrew Johnson blamed the massacre on an outraged Republican party, which resulted in a national backlash against his policies that led to voters electing a primarily Republican Congress in 1866. The Republican Congress attempted to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1866, and also ended the Black Codes, which had previously limited the rights of freedmen and other blacks, including their choices on work and living locations. These events lead to one of the most horrific massacres in history, The Colfax Massacre.
The Colfax Massacre, or Colfax Riot, as the events were later named on a state historic marker in 1950, occurred on Easter Sunday, April 13, 1873, in Colfax, Louisiana. The events of that day took place at the seat of Grant Parish, during a confrontation between the two major opposing political forces, the Republicans and the Democrats. In the aftermath of the highly contested election in 1872 for the position of governor of Louisiana and local offices, a group of white Democrats, armed with rifles and a small cannon, overpowered Republican freedmen and state militia (also black) that were trying to control the Grant Parish courthouse in Colfax; white Republican officeholders were not harmed. Majority of the freedmen were later killed after their surrender; nearly 50 others were also killed later that night after being held captive for several hours. The numbers of the death toll were rumored to be ranging from 62 to 153; three whites were recorded dead, but the number of black victims was undetermined because several of the bodies were tossed into the river, or removed from the site for burial. It was rumored, that mass graves were located at the site. The massacre was described as the worst instance of racial violence during Reconstruction. In Louisiana, it had the highest fatalities of any of the numerous violent events following the disputed gubernatorial contest in 1872 between Republicans and Democrats.

A few decades later, more racial events found their way north to states such...

Other Papers Like The Troubled Past

Analysis of the Poem

548 words - 3 pages mother notes that her son has "troubled eyes" and he is "puzzled and hurt by colour line." He has been hurt by racist acts against him and he is searching for answers. In stanza two, the aboriginal mother could tell her son all the terrible acts that were committed by the whites against the black people. But in stead, she focus on the positive aspects to improve relations between aboriginal and the white Australians. The mood of this poem is

Ajax Case Study

986 words - 4 pages AJAX Case Study Tran is an employee of CEBEX, one of the largest defense companies, and has been assigned as the Project Manager for a project coded Ajax. The project is a high-tech security system being funded by the U.S. Department of Defense. His core team consists of 30 full time individuals, half hardware engineers and the other half electrical engineers. In the past, Tran has been able to achieve quite an impressive reputation on managing

John Proctor's Change In The Crucible

613 words - 3 pages At the beginning of the play, John Proctor is deeply troubled about his affair with Abigail. He ended it and confessed to Elizabeth, but he is obviously troubled about that decision and not truly repented. He says to Elizabeth, “…your justice would freeze beer!” in response to her distrust of him due to the affair and even says, “I should have roared you down when you first told me your suspicious.” Clearly, he has

Juvenile Services Comparison

1440 words - 6 pages the YCAPP program and the Tidewater Youth Services Commission work with at risk youth to positively motivate them into the best person they can be. The direct beliefs responsibilities and goals for each is given below: a. YCAPP: YCAPP is a nonprofit organization who beliefs that youth no matter their circumstances and past transgressions can be positively motivated into productive members of society with bright futures. The YCAPP mission

Catcher in the Rye

725 words - 3 pages Catcher in the Rye is a coming of age story that tells the tale of Holden Caulfield, a troubled young man who throughout the novel, is presented with various symbols. The symbols are clearly made evident by Holden’s (J.D. Salinger's) constant repetition of their importance. The symbols are so important and their symbolism is directly related to the major themes of the novel. Three symbols seemed to have a higher president over the others, those

Water for Iceland

861 words - 4 pages the past of few years, the demand of bottled water is increasing. The factor is that increasingly people pay attention to the purity of water and their living level increased and the most important thing is that people want to avoid the substances present in coffee and soft drink. California consumed the most bottled water in the whole United States water market. The leading country importing bottle water to US is France; the second place is

A Short Story: A Mother's View Point Concerning Her Troubled Son

964 words - 4 pages His JourneyStretching for miles, the road continues in front of us. The fog swirls through the trees while the sun rises in its dimmed brilliance. Cars passing, going on their own journeysAre their hearts just as heavy? A trip that's forced upon us yet needed if he is to heal mentally. Will this work? Will being with nature calm his troubled soul?The land is changing around us. The cows are grazing on both sides of the highway, eating their

Let the Best Man Win

1112 words - 5 pages their troubled past when they are brought together by fighting each other in the Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) tournament, “Sparta”. By considering the paths the two brothers take to get to the final round of the MMA tournament, we see that the 2011 film, Warrior is a cutting edge story of the fable, “The Tortoise & the Hare.” Tommy and Brendan’s main goal for entering the MMA tournament is to win the five million dollar prize. Brendan Conlon

Review of The Sixth Sense

581 words - 3 pages Philadelphia filled with a red brick past and dieing autumn leaves. Things from the beginning are clearly not right; Cole has no friends and suffers from panic attacks. The film makes several references to religion although more as something of safety than a faith. His mother is desperately worried and frustrated, you genuinely feel her and her son’s love for one another but also the tension caused by lies. It is up to Dr Crow

The Setting of Frankenstein

608 words - 3 pages some distance, advancing towards me with superhuman speed. He bounded over the crevices in the ice, among which I had walked with caution; his stature, also, as he approached, seemed to exceed that of man. I was troubled: a mist came over my eyes, and I felt a faintness seize me; but I was quickly restored by the cold gale of the mountains. I perceived, as the shape came nearer (sight tremendous and abhorred!) that it was the wretch whom I had


543 words - 3 pages schools or districts do not meet with the AYP consecutively, the federal government gives the state and local agencies power to improve the school like, transferring students to a better school, help is offered to troubled students, replacement of school staff and closing the school. There are still some debate whether NCLB is effective. A pro to the policy is schools are paying more attention to students, however, George Will (2007) argues

Related Essays

Compare And Contrast Essay

1324 words - 6 pages Alternative Vs. Traditional High schools Cheryl Zang COM/155 April 20, 2014 Cathy Smith Alternative vs. Traditional High schools Adolescents are the future of America. With this being well known, why do we as members of society often look down upon the ones that have a questionable past and have graduated from an alternative high school? This is the question that makes me wonder if we are creating a better future for society, or just

Illusion And Mendacity Essay

1725 words - 7 pages example to all of these factors through his past with his friend skipper, his abuse of alcohol, and the lack of love he shows for his wife, while in A Streetcar Named Desire, Blanche encounters similar problems as Brick with her past trauma and her alcohol problem. The two plays share many similarities in terms of themes but at the same time also share significant difference. In the play Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Brick is troubled with his past

“Now You See It…”: A Critical Analysis Of Natalie Hamilton's “The A Mazing House: The Labyrinth As Theme And Form In Mark Z. Danielewski's House Of Leaves”

930 words - 4 pages Whalestoe Letters and they bring back memories of Truant’s troubled past, which he was unable to fully overcome. Hamilton goes even further to say, “one interpretation of House of Leaves would be to see the entire work as the product of Truant’s troubled mind.”(8) This goes to show how much Truant is troubled by his past and how deep of a labyrinth he is trapped into. Zampano’s manuscript is the key that Truant believes will help him face the

Kohlberg's Scale Essay

603 words - 3 pages did nothing. The man was obviously troubled and the child should not have been left in his care. Now that this occurred, Tallahassee DCF is now questioning whether or not they responded correctly when they left five-year-old Phoebe in her troubled father’s care. It is a shame that a little girl had to lose her life in order for a department to review their decision making (WTSP, 2015). Stories like this is why I consider myself as being in stage