The Three Major Empires
The first empires began in Mesopotamia, the Nile valley, and the Yellow River valley. Empires often are not created. In some cases empires are formed then a transition from one ruler to another over the same region is made. For example the Persian Empire came from the conquering and incorporation of the Egyptian, Medes, Babylonian, and Lydian kingdoms that made up western Asia. Then the Persians were defeated by the Greeks under Alexander the Great, taking western Asia and extending Hellenistic culture as far east as India.
What is an Empire? The definition of an empire is the extension of political rule by one people over another, different peoples. The ...view middle of the document...
C.E they were conquered by the Romans in the “Latin wars.” In 340 B.C.E Campania attempted to annul their affiliation to Rome they were subdued by Roman forces.
In less than a century the Romans dominated the northern part of the Italian Peninsula by conquering the Etuscans, Samnites, Gauls, and Umbrians. The Romans then turned to the south and faced Pyrrus of Epirus. He won a few early, costly victories, Pyrric victories, but was eventually overcome by the Romans. The Romans also expelled the Greeks from the peninsula. In 264 B.C.E Pyrruhus’ troops withdrew and Rome, either threw alliance or conquest, controlled everything south of the Po valley.
After gaining control over most of the Italian peninsula Rome turned set out to conquer Carthage, it’s arch-rival across the Mediterranean in Africa, in a and the rest of the Western Mediterranean.
Rome engaged Carthage in the Punic Wars. Due to advancement in Roman naval technology the first Punic war ended in victory for the Romans in 241 B.C.E. In 227 B.C.E Rome annexed Sardinia and Corsica. Taking advantage of mutiny by Carthaginian troops. The second Punic War begun when the Romans where defeated by Hannibal and the Carthaginians defeated the Romans at the Spanish city of Saguntum in 219 B.C.E. The Second Punic war was well fought by both sides. But, the Romans won the twenty-year struggle. In the third Punic war the Romans sacked Carthage. With the most formidable adversary out of the way the Romans went on to conquer Southwestern Europe, Greece, Northwestern Europe and Britain. Rome did not always use warfare to conquer other peoples they sometimes would extend a limited citizenship to their others and incorporated men from conquered lands into their armies. Eventually the Roman army was not even Roman. The men who made up their armies where professional soldiers not from Rome.
The period between 481 B.C.E and 221 B.C.E in Chinese history are known as the Warring States period. It is called this because after the Zhou dynasty weekend, the powerful, independent states of the North China plain often fought among each other. In 221 B.C.E the Qin dynasty conquered the other states and created the first Chinese Empire. After the Qin the Han dynasty ruled China they spread imperial control far to the south and to the west deep into central Asia along the Silk Road. The Boarders they established have lasted to the present day. They often succeeded in converting the people on the boarders to the Chinese culture but sometimes met resistance.
By 2 C.E the second census showed that the total population dropped from 58 million to 48 million, however the regional distribution shifted from76 percent in north and 24 percent in the south, to 54 percent and 46 percent. Natural turbulence and pressure from the Xiongnu and the Tibetans caused the drop in population and may have caused the distribution. The Sue-Tang dynasties expanded even deeper into central Asia.