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The Systems Impact Model Essay

959 words - 4 pages

The System Impact Model

People are constantly involved with their social environment. As Zastrow, Kirst-Ashman state, many people are also involved with other systems such as the following: families, groups, organizations, and communities. In a diagram referred to as the systems impact model, it states that each individual comes into contact with each of its other systems in the social environment. A system is a set of elements that are interrelated to make a functional whole. The three basic systems are micro, mezzo, and macro systems. (P.19) On the other hand, a man by the name of Urie Bronfenbrenner came up with the Ecological Systems theory which like that of the systems impact ...view middle of the document...

(P.19-20) The Micro System does not only refer to adult individuals it also refers to a child’s surroundings. According to Brofenbremer, the Micro System is the innermost level of the environment; the Micro System consists of activities and interaction patterns in the child’s immediate surroundings. He also emphasizes that to understand child development at this level, we must keep in mind that all relationships are bidirectional. This means, that adults affect children’s behavior, however, children’s physical attributes, personalities, and capacities also could affect the adult’s behavior. For example, a friendly, attentive child is likely to provoke a positive, patient response from their caregiver, whereas a distractible child is more likely to receive restrictment and punishment. (P.26)
The second system is called the Mezzo System. According to Zastrow and Krist-Ashman, the Mezzo System refers to any small group, including family, work groups, and social groups. Sometimes it is difficult to clearly distinguish between Micro, which is individual, and Macro which is a “small group”, where the individual is also involved with others who are close to them. Examples used are as followed: importance of play with peers and participation in school for children, empowerment through social work with groups, the functions of nonverbal communication, and family issues for the elderly. (P.20) However, according to Brofenbremer, the Mesosystem, encompasses connections between the Microsystem as well, such as home, school, neighborhood and child-care center. For example, a child’s academic progress depends not just on activities that take place in classrooms, but also on parent involvement in school life and on the extent to which academic learning is carried over into the home. (P.26) Brofenbremer also has an additional system in his System Theory, called the Exosystem. According to him the Exosystem consists of social settings that do not contain children but that nevertheless affect children’s experiences in immediate settings. These can include...

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