The Role Of The Amygdala In Human Functioning

1938 words - 8 pages

The term ‘amygdala’ was first used by Burdach (1819) and referred to a set of nuclei in the brain (Aggleton & Saunders, 2000). In 1939, researchers Klüver & Bucy inflicted bilateral lesions of the inferior temporal lobe of monkeys in a laboratory in an attempt to reduce aggression. These lesions affected the cortical areas, amygdala, and the hippocampus. Later this became known as Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and consisted of symptoms such as psychic blindness, hypermetamorphsis, oral tendencies, and changes in emotional and sexual behaviors. Lesions of the amygdala made monkeys fearless of e.g. humans or snakes, and affectively flat, tame. This research brought recognition to the notion ...view middle of the document...

The limbic system was first recognized due to Franz Josef Gall (LeDoux, J., 1996). Franz Joseph Gall developed the idea of “phrenology” that focused on the study of the different variations of bumps on the human skull to be related to differences in behavioral and emotional functioning. The limbic system’s main function in the brain is to control emotional behaviors and certain forms of memories that are infused with emotion (amygdala). The amygdala is a part of the brain that forms the tail end of the basal ganglia within the rostral temporal lobe and is located near the hippocampus (Lambert, K.G. & Kinsley, C .H., 2005). The amygdala, as defined by the text, is an almond-shaped structure that functions as a part of the limbic system involved in regulation of emotion and sexual urges (Lambert, K.G. & Kinsley, C .H., 2005). In addition, the amygdala is comprised of a dozen or more sub regions that are not all involved in fear conditioning (LeDoux, J., 1996).
Primary Involvement
The amygdala has been the subject of many researchers’ curiosity throughout the history of neurological science and neuropsychology. Multiple studies have been successful in identifying the role of the amygdala in the human brain and it’s primary involvement in human functioning. Dating back to 1939, researchers have discovered that the amygdala plays a significant role in emotional processing of stimuli and the regulation of human emotions. Throughout the years it has also been discovered that the amygdala plays a role in areas such as anxiety, conditioned and unconditioned fear response, associative learning, taste aversion, appetitive conditioning and drug addiction, memory storage, autism, and Alzheimer’s disease (Lambert, K.G. & Kinsley, C .H., 2005). Furthermore, it is important to note that the degree of amygdala’s participation in a learning situation depends on how much arousal the stimuli induces. However, the primary functions of the amygdala remain memory, decision-making, and emotional processing.
Other Brain Areas
Conditioned taste aversion has been known as the association between taste and malaise (Lamprecht & Dudai, 2000). This type of association is due to an innate predisposition for the formation of a connection between food and distress. Conditioned taste aversion is optimal when a particular taste is novice to the individual. In addition, conditioned taste aversion allows for an intermediate amount of time between taste and malaise unlike in the case of classical conditioning. As cited by Lamprecht and Dudai (2000) it has been established that the amygdala receives taste and malaise input into multiple nuclei (Norgren et al., 1989; Yomamoto et al., 1994; Bures et al., 1998). The amygdala also receives input on gastrointestinal distress. In this case, the information is transferred via the vagus nerve to the caudal region of the nucleus of the solitary tract and by the dorsal horn to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (Lamprecht & Dudai, 2000)....

Other Papers Like The Role Of The Amygdala In Human Functioning

The View of Human Nature and the Role of the State

757 words - 4 pages The view of human nature and the role of the state: Human nature is difficult to define but can be summed up as the innate characteristics and traits that all human beings are born with, which is free from culture influence. What these characteristics and traits are, is often cause for debate as it is a general belief that these should apply to everyone. However the problem lies in the fact that no two humans are the same therefore reaching a

The Role of Hr Managment in Tourism

825 words - 4 pages NMMU GEORE CAMPUS The role of Human Resource management in tourism TABLE OF CONTENT 1. Human-Resource management in Tourism 2. Pentravels Human Resource management philosophy 3. Reference list 1. Human-resource management in Tourism The purpose of this report is to discuss the role that Human-resource management has in the tourism and hospitality industries and the challenges that the tourism and hospitality

The Role of Government in Policy Making

914 words - 4 pages Assignment: The Role of Government in Policy-Making HSM 240 Public Policy Development in Human Services Axia College Instructor: Amy Randle Student: Marlo Palmer July 23, 2010 Assignment: The Role of Government in Policy-Making Human service organizations are governed by a legislative and judiciary system. The judiciary system decides what policy is legal and illegal, and can require the executive or legislative branch to fix it

Role of Women in the Church

924 words - 4 pages Short Essay on the Role of Women in the Church             The matriarchs and coheirs of the human race have long been subdued from reaching their full potential in society and within the church. However, there are questions that must be examined in order to determine the proper role of women in the church and what subsequent service they might shoulder.             An elder, presbyteroi, had a prominent function in the New Testament Church

The Role of Media in Our Country

653 words - 3 pages THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN OUR SOCIETY One of the earliest proverbs we learn at school is “The pen is mightier than the sword”. This signifies the importance and power of literature, which has the ability to influence people more than any war or conquest. The written material is the source and fundamental part of media. With the advent of modern technology, the media has diversified into many other forms, such as radio, television and the Internet

The Role of Women in Development

1107 words - 5 pages incomes. The World Bank argues that by giving women more access to human capital, credit, land and fertiliser, total agricultural production could increase by between 6-20% in sub-Saharan Africa because of the central role of women in agriculture. •Improved Education and health: There are strong links between women's education and health. According to EarthTrends, from 1975 to 1995, gains in women's education in 63 different countries contributed

The Role Of Religion In Society

1216 words - 5 pages The Role of Religion in Society The role of religion in society is definately a dynamic one. The relationship between both religion and society is always changing. Religion effects different societies in different ways and different forms, causing the forms of society to change according to a change in religion. Religion can be a driving force in society, but as a reactionary rather than in a radical way

Role of Islam in the Ottoman Empire

1149 words - 5 pages importance of Islam and its role in the two empires changed, it is safe to say that both of the empires went through a period of time where religion played a vital role in the people’s lives and tolerance of minority groups was at a high point. I will look more in-depth at the overall role that religion played in the empires as well as discuss both the positives and the negatives of the situation for minority groups. Islam played a big role

The Role of Judges in History

632 words - 3 pages Nancy McCulloch Grand Canyon University BIB 104 Old Testament Historical Perspective June 3, 2011 The Role of Judges in Israel The book of Judges deals with that period in Israel’s history when God used “judges” to provide leadership at crucial moments prior to the time of the kings. The judges were not political rulers. They could not tax people, keep a standing army or pass on their authority to

Role of Money in the Market

704 words - 3 pages $100 bill means something very different today than it did 50 years ago, buying less than it once did. Money helps markets to exist by playing an exchange role. Before paper bills (and before that, coins made of gold and other precious metals) became prevalent in society, the only medium of exchange was through barter, or trade. This meant that traders had to bring goods to market, to exchange for other goods. Although the medium of

The Role of Women in History

2830 words - 12 pages the moral fibre to consistently know right from wrong. It was believed that deep down all women were inherently evil, as it was Eve who led Adam into temptation which resulted in them being cast out from the Garden of Eden. So, in literature, the female gender role is usually represented as a passive object of beauty to be adored, or competed for by men. They were quiet, docile creatures who keep their opinions to themselves and were not

Related Essays

Descibe The Gross Structure And Functioning Of All Major Systems In The Body

5628 words - 23 pages other nutrients to the cells in the body that need them, the oxygen binds to hemoglobin located in the red blood cells for it to be transported around the body. The blood also provides the role of carrying carbon dioxide back to the heart. The main functions of the cardiovascular system are to transport oxygen, hormones and other nutrients around the body to be delivered to cells and tissues that need it. The heart pumps blood around the body

The Role Of Human Resources Management

1925 words - 8 pages ” of the future; however, managers can never forget the importance of real face-to-face communication and relationships. The lifeline of an organization Human Resources Management; they play a vital role in everyday activities and are responsible for all necessary functions – big and small – that deal with the organization’s success. Each HRM member is a partner to the company’s human capital, stepping up to the plate as mentor, cheerleader

The Strategic Role Of Human Resources Management

1942 words - 8 pages Newcastle University in the United Kingdom conducted a research on the effect of fertilization on plants composition in terms of fertilizers and plants protection methods used. The sources analyzed were previous studies on the matter. As the result Brandt states that in relation to human health, increased consumption of organic fruits and vegetables is linked to reduce risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, possible due to their content of

Role Of Compensation In Human Resources Management

773 words - 4 pages in monetary terms. Compensation is the employer's feedback for an employee's work. It simply is the monetary value you would give to your four employees in return of their services. In the book Human Resource Management, Gary Dessler defines compensation in these words "Employee compensation refers to all forms of pay going to employees and arising from their employment." The phrase 'all forms of pay' in the definition does not include non